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Retrieving Information. Chapter 10 Section 2. Introduction. Processes of retrieval: Recognition Recall Relearning. Recognition. Information stored by which a person identifies new information from experience. Example: Multiple choices in tests. Recall. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Retrieving Information

Retrieving InformationChapter 10 Section 2IntroductionProcesses of retrieval:RecognitionRecallRelearningRecognitionInformation stored by which a person identifies new information from experience.Example: Multiple choices in tests.RecallThe process of remaking information learned before.Involves a persons knowledge, attitudes, and expectations.Reconstructive Processes: Memory altered or distorted, dependent on how we encounter other information.Confabulation: Remembering information that was never stored in memory.Schemas: Expectations based on past experiences. Eidetic Memory: Accurately remembering images.State-Dependent Learning: Information recalled when set in the same physiological, emotional state, or setting as you were when you originally experienced the information.RelearningThe measure of declarative and procedural memory.Learning information again that was learned a long time ago.ForgettingInvolves decay, interference, or repression.Decay: The dying away of memory over time.Interference: Memory blocked or erased by previous or later on memories.Proactive Interference: Earlier memory blocked by later informationRetroactive Interference: Later or new information blocked by earlier memory.Amnesia: Loss of memory caused by a blow to the head or brain damage.

Improving MemoryRepetition and maintenance rehearsal can help you remember.Elaborative rehearsal: Relating new information to what you already know.A good way to prevent interference is by overlearning information.Distributed Practice: Learning little at a time.Mnemonic DevicesThey are not devices.Techniques used to memorize information through associations.Example: Method of Loci where an individual walks while learning.

Thinking and Problem SolvingDone By:Rashid AlHadi, Mohd Basil, Rashad, Khalid AlMusallam, Abdulla Bindayna, and Mohd SalahHow do we think? (10 Sentences)JournalThinking is changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new informationThe processes of thought depend on units of thought like an image, concept, or a symbol

What Is Thinking?An image is a visual, mental representation of an event.Images are not exact representations of a memory, but rather contain highlights of it.Example: If you were to visualize a school trip you went on when you were six, you would only remember a few details like the people who were with you or the place you visited.ImageA symbol is something that represents something else.It could be a sound, object, or design that represents an object or qualityEvery word is a symbol.For example the word class is a symbol for a room that students learn in.SymbolA concept is a label for objects that have stuff in common.An example of a concept would be the word animals as it separates living organisms from cars and buildings.ConceptA prototype is a representative example of a concept.For example when you think of video games you might picture a PS3 or when you think of music you think of Akon. PrototypeDirected thinking is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a goal or an answer. An example of directed thinking would creating a flow chart or using a formula.Divergent thinking consists of a free flow of thoughts with no rules to follow. Divergent thinking is rich with imagery and feelings.Metacognition is when you think about thinking. For example when you get stuck solving an algebra problem you start thinking about the strategy youre using.Types of ThinkingProblem solving is how you get from the problem to the solution.To solve problems you have to have strategies An algorithm is a fixed set of procedures that can lead to a solutionAnother type of strategies is heuristic where you use a rules of thumb to simplify the problem.Problem SolvingSometimes we tend to overuse some useful strategies when solving a problem.When a strategy becomes a habit it is called a mental set.A mental set means you keep on solving problems in a certain way.Functional fixedness is an another obstacle to problem solving, it simply means being unable to imagine new uses for familiar objects (like using a pen to clean your hands).Obstacles to Problem SolvingCreativity is being able to use information or abilities in a new and original way.When you are able to overcome functional fixedness, it is called flexibility. Recombination is a new mental arrangement of old elements. For examples in football and basketball there are no new moves, there are only new game plans or a recombination.An insight is when you suddenly realize the solution to a problem. For example you are stuck in a video game so you decide to abandon it, then while you are doing something else you suddenly get the solution to that video game you were stuck on.



PresentationHajer DawaniAlaa QassimFatima JanahiAli Jassim

12DJournalIf you could change your mother tongue to any language, what would it be? and why? (10 Sent.)

Main Idea of Chapter 11 Section 2 Language and thought are alike. They are closely related. Learning a language is challengeable yet most people have a little difficulty learning it.

The main vocabulary words for this section are:

Language PhonemeMorpheme SyntaxSemantics Has anyone ever talked to themselves?Some people who talk to themselves are either solving a problem or thinking out loud. When you are talking or thinking you are using language. Language is a system of communication that involves using rules to make and combine symbols in ways that produce meaningful words and sentences.Scientific study of language are called linguistics.

Language consists of 3 elements1. Phonemes: the smallest units of sound in human languages.

2. Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning

3. Syntax: refers to rules for combining words into meaningful phrases or sentences to express thoughts that can be understood by others.

Phonemes can be represtened by a single letter (such as consonants like t or vowels like e) Or a combination of letters such as sh. We can produce about hundred different recognizable sounds but not all sounds are used in all languages.

Example: the English language uses about 43 sounds while some languages use 15 sounds and some other use 85 sounds. Understanding Phonemes

It is made up of one or more Morphemes . Morphemes can be a word, letter (S), prefix (un- in uncertain), or a suffix (-ly in slowly)

Example: The words book, love, and reason are single morphemes, while loves, relearn, and walked have two morphemes (love and s, re- and learn, walk, and ed)

Understanding MorphemesUnderstanding SyntaxExample: The following words doesnt make any sense: Wore little the pink girl dress

In English we follow grammatical rules, such as placing adjectives in front of nouns. Every language has this rule but in each language it differs.

If you applied these rules in the sentence above, it would read as: The little girl wore a pink dress. Understanding SemanticsIs the study of meaning from morphemes, words, sentences, and context. The same word can have two different meanings.

Example: A mind is a terrible thing to waste. Do you mind if I sit sext to you?

The word mind is understood differently in the two sentences.

How did you know the meaning of mind in both sentences?Because you have learned about semantics, you knew that in the first sentence mind was a noun, while in the second sentence it was a verb.

Language developmentB.F. Skinner believed that children learned language as a result of operant conditioning. When children utter sounds that are similar to adult speech patterns, their behaviors reinforced through smiles and extra attention; therefore, children repeat those sounds. Eventually children learn to produce speech. D

ContinuationSome psychologists argue that children learn language through observation, exploration, and imitation. The psychologists believe that both innate and environmental factors play a part in how a child learns language.

Noam Chomsky believed that reinforcement and imitation do contribute to language development, but he didnt believe that all the complex rules of language could be learned that way. Chomsky theorized that infants possess an innate capacity for language which means children inherit a mental program that enables them to learn grammar.

How language developsBeginning at birth, infants can cry and produce other sounds a suggestion of distress. Around 2 months of age, infants begin to coo. Cooing refers to long, drawn-out sounds such as oooh or eeeh. At around 4 months of age, infants reach the first stage of language development and begin to babble. When babbling, infants learn to control their vocal cords and to make, change, repeat, and imitate the sounds of their parents. At around 9 months of age, infants refine their babbling to increasingly include sounds of their parents. Identify how many phonemes and morphemes are in each of the following.Everyone has one try, read it out loud as you are thinking. FEARLESSNESSBUTTERFLYLOVELINESSActivity 1Everyone will be chosen to say a sentence in a different language. You have 5 choices of languages. The language can not be repeated more than two times.THE LANGUAGES: PersianFrenchThaiIndianArabic

Activity 2 One person says a sentence and the person next to that person will continue the sentence that was made up. It will go on and on until everyone gets a chance to talk and say something.

( This activity will allow you to think quickly and come up with a logical sentence that makes sense. )

Activity 3Correct the sentence!

1. The bathroom was stuck shawarma in the boy night all poisoning the from

2. Extravagant at last blew red away the at minds everyone's dress the prom Activity 4Language involves more than just communicating, it involves grammarIt involves combining words or phrases into meaningful sentencesEven though animals do not possess the ability to use grammar, they have been taught to communicate with humansSo the answer is YESDo animals learn language?Do people who speak difference languages think differently from another?Benjamin Whorf argued that language affects our basic perceptions of the physical world.He used the term linguistic relativity to refer to the idea that language influences thoughts.It is difficult to separate culture from language when studying the use of language and the perceptions it influences. Some people argue that certain words in language create gender stereotypes.Gender and Cultural Differences Read the following words. NOT THE COLORS.

Activity 5BLUE PURPLE RED GREEN YELLOW NOIR VERT(People that are bilingual and can speak French would have read the last twoWords easier because they already know what the word means)Quiz!!!What is phonemes? What was your favorite activity? And why? Give an example of MorphemesLanguage consists of 3 elements name them How many phonemes are in the wordFEARLESSNESS What is syntax? Do Animals learn language? If yes, explain. Video!!!