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  • Relationship between Psychological Contract and Personality:

    A Study of Employees of Selected Government Organisations / PSUs in India

    Dissertation Submitted to the Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University, Department of Business Management

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of

    Master in Philosophy (Business Management)

    Submitted by:

    MANOJ GOYAL (Roll No. DYPM Phil 0701006)

    Research Guide:

    Dr. R. Gopal Director

    Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University, Department of Business Management

    Sector 4, Plot No. 10, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai. 400 614

    March 2009

  • Relationship between Psychological Contract and

    Personality: A Study of Employees of Selected

    Government Organisations / PSUs in India

  • DECLARATION

    I hereby declare that the dissertation “Relationship between

    Psychological Contract and Personality: A Study of Employees of Selected

    Government Organisations / PSUs in India” submitted for the degree of

    Master in Philosophy (Business Management) at Padamshree Dr.

    D.Y. Patil University’s Department of Business Management is my

    original work and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the

    award of any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar

    titles.

    Place: Mumbai --sd-- Date: 27.03.09 (MANOJ GOYAL) Signature of the Student

  • CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the dissertation titled “Relationship between

    Psychological Contract and Personality: A Study of Employees of

    Selected Government Organisations / PSUs in India” is the bona fide

    research work carried out by Mr. MANOJ GOYAL, student of Master

    in Philosophy (Business Management), at Padamshree Dr. D.Y. Patil

    University’s Department of Business Management during the period

    2007-2009, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

    the Degree of ‘Master in Philosophy (Business Management)’ and

    that the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award

    previously of any degree, diploma, associate ship, fellowship or any

    other similar title.

    Place: Mumbai --sd-- Date: (Dr. R. Gopal)

    Signature of the Guide

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    In the first place, I am indebted to the Padamshree Dr. D.Y. Patil University’s Department of Business Management, which has accepted me for M. Phil. program and provided an excellent opportunity to carry out the present research project. I sincerely thank Dr. R. Gopal, Director, Department of Business Management of Padamshree Dr. D.Y. Patil University, for having given me his valuable guidance for the project. Without his guidance, it would have never been possible for me to complete this project.

    I would also like to thank people from various government organizations, who have helped me in collection of data for this project, without which this project could have never been completed.

    I would be failing in my duty if I do not acknowledge, with a deep sense of gratitude, the sacrifices made by my wife Tuhina and son Advyay for allowing and supporting me to spend my free time on this project work and thus have helped me in completing the project work successfully.

    Place: Mumbai Date: 27.03.09 --sd--

    (MANOJ GOYAL) Signature of the Student

  • CONTENTS

    Chapter No.

    TITLE

    Page No.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

    Chapter - 1 INTRODUCTION 9

    Chapter - 2 CONCEPTS AND THEORY 12

    Chapter - 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 28

    Chapter - 4 OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES 87

    Chapter - 5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 99

    Chapter - 6 DATA ANALYSIS AND HYPOTHESES TESTING

    114

    Chapter - 7 CONCLUSION AND LIMITATION

    129

    APPENDICES:

    Appendix - 1 RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 139

    Appendix - 2 S.P.S.S. OUTPUTS 150

    Appendix - 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 193

    Appendix - 4 COPIES OF SOME LITERATURE/ RESEARCH ARTICLES REVIEWED

  • LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE No.

    TITLE

    PAGE No.

    2.1

    The Big Five Personality Domains and their Facets

    27

    3.1 Old Deal vs. New Deal 55

    4.1 Research Hypotheses 98

    5.1 List of Organizations Selected for Data Collection 102

    5.2 Analysis of sample Collection 104

    5.3 Demographic Analysis of Sample 106

    5.4 Dimensions of Psychological Contract and their sub-scales

    111

    6.1 Score on Various types of Psychological Contracts 117

    6.2 Score on Relational Contract of Various Age Groups 118

    6.3 Mean Scores of Male and Female Employees on various types of Psychological Contracts

    119

    6.4 Correlations between Transactional Contract and

    Big Five Personality Factors 122

    6.5 Correlations between Relational Contract and Big

    Five Personality Factors 124

    6.6 Correlations between Balanced Contract and Big

    Five Personality Factors 126

    6.7 Result of Hypotheses Testing 128

    7.1 Summary of Objectives and Outcomes 134

  • LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE No.

    TITLE

    PAGE No.

    2.1

    Four Types of Psychological Contracts

    17

    2.2 Assessment of Psychological Contracts 21

    3.1 Responses to Violation 34

    3.2 Framework of Strategy & PC 35

    3.3 Main factors predicting occupational behavior 38

    3.4 Newcomer’s Psychological Contract Perceptions 70

    3.5 Bi-polar Features of the Psychological Contracts 74

    4.1 Model of how HRM policies influence employee’s attitudes & behaviors

    89

    5.1 The Model of the Research Process 100

    5.2 Demographic Analysis of Sample 107

    7.1 Applying Psychological Contract to the Employment Relationship

    137

  • 1

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Change is a constant in today’s organizations. Changes currently

    affecting the workplace include - rise in part time and temporary jobs,

    downsizing and de-layering, leanness, ever-changing market and

    technology, growing importance of ‘human capital’ and ‘knowledge’ for

    business performance and to encompass all these, new models of

    organizational structures such as virtual organization.

    One effect of these changes is that employees are being

    increasingly recognized as the key business drivers. The ability of the

    business to add value rests on its employees or ‘human capital’.

    Organizations, wishing to extract most of this ‘human capital’ in order to

    succeed, have to know what their employees expect from their work. The

    psychological contract offers a framework for monitoring employee’s

    attitudes and priorities on those dimensions that can be shown to

    influence performance. The psychological contract is now becoming an

    accepted part of the thinking and lexicon of HR practitioners.

    The psychological contract has been defined as - “….An

    individual’s beliefs regarding the terms and conditions of a reciprocal

    exchange arrangement between the focal person and another party. A

    psychological contract emerges when one party believes that promise of

    future return has been made, a contribution has been given and thus, an

    obligation has been created to provide future benefits……” (by Rousseau)

  • 2

    This definition lay stress on perception by an individual regarding

    employment relationship with his/her employer and is widely accepted by

    researchers. Since it is the perception by individual employee which

    affects his/ her work behavior, therefore, ‘psychological contracts’ are

    subjective and idiosyncratic in nature.

    The psychological contract is not an isolated, detached concept. It

    is influenced by a whole range of factors – both individual and

    organizational. The psychological contract itself also has its effect on a

    range of attitudes and behaviors.

    A lot of research work has been done on outcome of fulfillment or

    violation of psychological contract, which establishes the need to manage

    the psychological contract of employees well to rule out the negative

    outcomes of breach of psychological contract. However, little research has

    been found in the literature to suggest the mechanism of formation of

    psychological contract or to probe the factors which influences the

    psychological contract of an individual. Personality of an individual is one

    of such obvious factors which influence the type of psychological contract

    formed by him/her.

    There has been growing interest among researchers on the utility of

    five factor model (Big five) of personality and there has been lot of

    evidenc

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