reese, stephen salzburg media framing 2015

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  1. 1. Media framing in global context Stephen Reese University of Texas @sdreese
  2. 2. Salzburg Academy on Media & Global Change Media Action Plans (MAPs) Part 1: Articulating the Challenge What role do MEDIA play in this challenge?
  3. 3. media literacy goals understand the media system produce one's own media decode media messages
  4. 4. Media literacy in the network society In the age of social media, do professional news gatekeepers still have power? Yes, but part of a new eco-system Social media help complement, amplify, redistribute
  5. 5. media frames and framing
  6. 6. (Reese, 2001) Frames are organizing principles
  7. 7. Issues are framed
  8. 8. (Entman, 1993) insuchaway as to promote a particular problem denition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation.
  9. 9. William Gamson Frames are media packages (with exemplars, metaphors, catchphrases, visual images)
  10. 10. The power of language
  11. 11. Framing Human rights
  12. 12. How did the U.S. press frame the Iraq Abu Ghraib prison scandal? None dare call it torture (Bennett et al.)
  13. 13. Abuse vs. Torture
  14. 14. Who promoted the abuse frame?
  15. 15. Answer: The U.S. administration
  16. 16. and the echoing press
  17. 17. framing examples
  18. 18. US in Iraq Liberation vs. Invasion
  19. 19. Framing global conict
  20. 20. Salzburgpresentation2012 Most important NY Times frames 7/16/12
  21. 21. Frame resonated with U.S. war on terror (with Sudan president the villain) Implied solution: punishment vs. nding solution rooted in historical land ownership conict
  22. 22. Personal vs. Societal causes
  23. 23. credit vs. debt opportunity/payment vs. risk/repayment
  24. 24. human dignity vs. religious conscience
  25. 25. Framing 9/11
  26. 26. Global War on Terror
  27. 27. Elements of the War on Terror frame war axis of evil (WW II) evil doers Pearl Harbor war president terrorism, terror
  28. 28. Framing language: Terrorism vs. Terror
  29. 29. Elite linking: "After September 11th having been hit once how could we take a chance that Saddam might strike again? And that's the threat that has been removed and I think we are all safer . (3/11/09)
  30. 30. A press-state construction? (1 Nov. 2001) NBC Meet the Press host Tim Russert: "We are at war, and all of us must come together as never before," Russert said. "Simply put: There are those who want to destroy us, our people -- men, women and children -- our institutions, our way of life, our freedom.
  31. 31. Journalists role in framing They transmitted the frame But also took the frame (and policy) for granted It became naturalized
  32. 32. Political opponents failed to nd a counter-frame John Kerry: Now, more than ever, with our soldiers in harms way, we must stand together and succeedinIraqandwinthewar onterror.
  33. 33. The War on Terror as a natural fact of life Bin Laden showed new strengths and fallibilities in his tape. They revealed, too, the antidote: determination in the war on terror.
  34. 34. Group question: Which country represented at your table has the most media freedom? (give reasons)
  35. 35. Freedom House: Press Freedom Ranking
  36. 36. To what extent do nation- states still control media frames?
  37. 37. changing boundaries of framing
  38. 38. The new global journalists
  39. 39. Peter Berglez: global as embedded in news perspective"
  40. 40. Peter Berglez "News information with a global outlook establishes knowledge of how our lives in Copenhagen, Cairo, Brisbane and Mexico City are intertwined
  41. 41. Forest Loss in Sumatra Here on the island of Sumatra, ........................... ......................................... ................are some of the worlds fastest-disappearing forests . . . ........................... ............................companies have been claiming any land they can. (New York Times)
  42. 42. Forest Loss in Sumatra Becomes a Global Issue Here on the island of Sumatra, about 1200 miles from the global climate talks under way on Bali, are some of the worlds fastest- disappearing forests . . . Responding to global demand for palm oil, which is used in cooking and cosmetics and, lately, in an increasingly popular biodiesel, companies have been claiming any land they can. (New York Times)
  43. 43. Climate Change Soon Could Kill Thousands in UK, Says Report Climate change could lead to a heatwave in the south-east in England killing 3,000 people within the next decade, a Department of Health report said today. (The Guardian)
  44. 44. encouraging a global outlook
  45. 45. transparency activists
  46. 46. bridge blogs
  47. 47. globalized new journalism platforms
  48. 48. media work of global civil society
  49. 49. media literacy goals the media system has changed because people can produce and connect making the media target of decoding more diffused framing is still happening
  50. 50. frames still need decoding (and countering)
  51. 51. The State is still active
  52. 52. but so are you