pu nanocomposite 1

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  • 1

    I HC QUC GIA THNH PH H CH MINH

    TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN

    KHOA KHOA HC VT LIU

    B MN: VT LIU POLYMER&COMPOSITE

    SEMILAR L THUYT

    PPPUUU NNNAAANNNOOOCCCOOOMMMPPPOOOSSSIIITTTEEE CCCHHHNNNGGG CCCHHHYYY

    GVHD: TS HONG TH NG QU

    SVTH: V VN K - MSSV: 1019076

    TP. H Ch Minh, thng 12 nm 2013.

  • 2

    MC LC

    A. TNG QUAN V VT LIU POLYURETHANE ..................................................... 4

    I. S lc v vt liu polyurethane. ................................................................................. 4

    1) Gii thiu v vt liu Polyurethane. ......................................................................... 4

    2) Cc tnh cht ca vt liu Polyurethane. .................................................................. 4

    II. Phn loi polyurethane. ............................................................................................... 5

    1) PU mng. .................................................................................................................. 5

    2) PU Xp. .................................................................................................................... 5

    3) Polyurethane nhit do (TPU).................................................................................. 7

    III. Nguyn liu trong tng hp Polyurethane. ................................................................ 9

    1) Polyol. ...................................................................................................................... 9

    2) Isocyanate. .............................................................................................................. 10

    3) Cht ko di mch. ................................................................................................. 11

    4) Cht xc tc. ........................................................................................................... 12

    5) Cht hot ng b mt. .......................................................................................... 13

    IV. Phn ng tng hp Polyurethane. ............................................................................ 13

    1) Phn ng tng hp PU. .......................................................................................... 13

    2) Cc phn ng ph c th xy ra trong qu trnh tng hp PU. .............................. 14

    V. Cc phng php tng hp Polyurethane. ................................................................ 18

    1) Phng php c dung mi. .................................................................................... 18

    VI. Khong st Montmorillonite. ................................................................................... 20

    1) S lc v khong st Montmorillonite. ................................................................ 20

    2) Cu trc ca Montmorillonite. ............................................................................... 21

    VII. ng dng ca PU. .................................................................................................. 22

    B. NANOCOMPOSITE CHNG CHY. ....................................................................... 22

    I) Qu trnh chy ca polymer. ...................................................................................... 22

    II) C ch chng chy ca ph gia. ............................................................................... 24

  • 3

    1) c ch vt l. .......................................................................................................... 24

    2) C ch ha hc. ...................................................................................................... 24

    III) C ch chng chy ca Nanocomposite. ................................................................. 25

    IV) Mt s phng php kim tra kh nng chng chy ca vt liu. .......................... 26

    1) Phng php o ch s gii hn oxy (LOI). .......................................................... 26

    2) Phng php UL-94. .............................................................................................. 27

    3) Phng php nhit lng hnh nn. ....................................................................... 29

    C. MT S NGHIN CU V PU NANOCOMPOSITE CHNG CHY. ................. 30

    D. KT LUN. ................................................................................................................. 56

    E. TI LIU THAM KHO. ........................................................................................... 57

  • 4

    A. TNG QUAN V VT LIU POLYURETHANE

    I. S lc v vt liu polyurethane[1].

    1) Gii thiu v vt liu Polyurethane.

    Polyurethane(PU) l mt loi vt liu a nng c s dng rng ri trong nhiu

    lnh vc nh sn ph, cch m, cch nhit, cc vt liu xy dng, nm mt, m cy

    ghp y sinh

    Phn ng to PU u tin c thc hin vo nm 1937 bi gio s Otto Bayer

    sau c pht trin bi cc nh ha hc ti DuPont v ICI. Thnh phn chnh

    to nn PU l isocyante v polyol. PU thng c to thnh t phn ng trng

    hp bc gia polyol v diisocyanate. Phn ng xy ra gia nhm isocyanate vi H

    linh ng ca polyol to thnh lin kt urethane.

    Hnh 1: phn ng to lin kt urethane

    2) Cc tnh cht ca vt liu Polyurethane.

    Ty thuc vo tng trng hp m PU th hin cc tnh cht khc nhau. Mt s

    tnh cht c trng nh:

    - Kh nng chng mi mn cao.

    - n hi ln v khong nhit ng dng rng.

    - C kh nng khng du m v nhiu loi dung mi khc nhau.

    - C kh nng chu ng thi tit khc nghit v chu ng c cc tia bc

    x t nh sng mt tri.

    - Kh nng dn di v bn c hc cao.

  • 5

    - C kh nng phn hy sinh hc, kh nhy vi s tn cng ca vi khun

    v nm mc.

    II. Phn loi polyurethane.

    1) PU mng.

    PU mng c ng dng nhiu trong lnh vc sn ph nh: lp ph kim loi,

    sn tu bin, sn ph cc phng tin, b tng, s dng trong y t[2]. to mng

    PU c th thc hin bng 3 phng php:

    - PU phun mt thnh phn: Hu ht cc trng hp da vo s khu mng din

    ra bi phn ng ca hi nc trong khng kh vi prepolyme hnh thnh polyme

    rn. Kh cacbon dioxit c to thnh trong sut phn ng ny c thot ra ngoi

    khng kh hoc c gi li bng cc cht n trong h thng phn ng. Loi

    ny c dng lm vt liu chng thm nc v sn PU mt lp ph.

    - Polyurethane phun xt hai thnh phn c s dng sn xut sn v lp ph

    chng ha cht. Polyurethane c th tan trong mt vi dung mi d dng trong

    qu trnh phun xt. Polyurethane ngy cng tr nn rt quan trng trong lnh vc

    ny ca th trng v vn tc kt mng ca chng rt nhanh.

    - Latex: Polyurethane kt mng hon ton c to thnh trong latex, v vic

    loi b mi trng huyn ph to thnh lp film. Loi ny c dng to nn

    nhng chi tit c ph mng nh cc vt ngn m v cc cht kt dnh. p lc

    bo v mi trng trong vic gim thiu hm lng hp cht hu c d bay hi

    (VoC) dn n s quan tm ngy cng ln trong lnh vc ny.

    2) PU Xp[1].

    PU xp c s dng nhiu nht trong cc loi PU(chim n 80% tng sn

    lng PU), v chng c n hi cao v nhiu tnh cht c l tt[1].

    PU xp c th phn thnh hai loi chnh l: PU xp cng v PU xp mm. Di

    y l bng thnh phn ca xp cng v xp mm.

  • 6

    S khc bit c bn nht gia xp cng v xp mm l thnh phn

    isocyanate cu to nn xp. Trong khi xp cng thng c tng hp t MDI th

    xp mm li c tng hp t TDI chnh v s khc bit c bn dn ti cc

    ng dng khc nhau ca hai loi PU xp. Trong khi PU xp cng c s dng

    sn xut cc tm ngn trong cc cng trnh xy dng, lm cng ngh cch nhit

    trong t lnh, lm vt liu cch ly trn tng v trn nh, ngoi ra chng cng

    c ng dng trong mt s cc chi tit ca ngnh cng nghip sn xut t.

    Cn PU xp mm PU xp mm thng c dng lm gia dng nh nm, gi,

    tm lt thm

    C hai phng php tng hp PU xp:

    Phng php vt l: S dng cht to bt vt l (cht khng phn ng

    vi cc monome v c nhit si thp nh: propane, butane, pentane,

    fluorocarbon) vo phn ng, phn ng to lin kt urethane gia

    polyol v isocyanate l phn ng ta nhit v chnh qu trnh khuch tn

    ca lng nhit ny hnh thnh cc l xp trong lng polyme.

    Phng php ha hc: S dng cht to bt ha hc (cht phn ng vi

    monome isocyanate to thnh kh CO2 thng thng ngi ta hay s

    dng nc, ngoi ra cn c th dng cc axit hu c. Song song vi phn

    ng to kh CO2, phn ng polyme ha vn tip din, qu trnh to PU

    xp c m t thng qua hai phn ng sau:

  • 7

    Isocyanate + polyol polyme (1)

    Isocyanate + H2O CO2 (2)

    PU xp c tng hp trong qu trnh ny s c nhng tnh cht tt nu

    hai phn ng trn din ra cng mt tc .Nu phn ng polyme

    ha xy ra nhanh hn th polyme hnh thnh s c trng lng phn t

    cao, mc to xp thp.Cn nu phn ng th hai din ra nhanh hn,

    bt xp pht trin qu nhiu s dn n ph v cu trc vt liu.Chnh

    v vy qu trnh gia cng cn c kim sot khi qu trnh to bt kt

    thc th qu trnh polyme ha cng hon thnh.

    3) Polyurethane nhit do (TPU).

    TPU l mt copolyme khi mch thng bao gm cc phn on cng v mm.

    Cc phn on cng l ni tp trung nhiu n v ti lp ca monomer isocyanate,

    chng to lin kt hydrogen vi nhau to nn tnhcng cho vt liu. Cn phn

    mm l nhng vng tp trung nhiu n v ti lp ca monomer polyol, chng c

    dng mch thng, mm do v linh ng, t gp phn to nn tnh mm do cho

    PU[1], [3], [4], [5].

    Hnh 2: nhng phn ng xy ra trong tng hp TPU[1].

  • 8

    Hnh 3: cu trc ca TPU[3].

    Ngoi ra tnh cht ca TPU cn b chi phi bi cc yu t nh:

    Cu trc ca polyol.

    Loi tc cht diisocyanate.

    Loi cht ko di mch.

    T l NCO/OH.

    Nng phn on mm.

    Trng lng phn t ca polyol.

    Cht n.

    Vic gn kt xen k cc phn on cng xen ln cc phn on mm to nn

    tnh cht n hi cho TPU. Khi tc dng lc ln TPU, mt phn nhng phn on

    mm linh ng b

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