Proficiency 2

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<ul><li><p>I can analyze the differences between comets, asteroids, meteors and moons. I will research orbits and discuss differences of what we see from the Earths surface (phases). I will analyze the effect the moons orbit has on our planet. I will predict what would happen if Earth had a 2nd moon or the distance to the moon was increased or decreased. </p><p>Proficiency 2By Katelyn</p></li><li><p>I can analyze the differences between comets, asteroids, meteors and moons.</p></li><li><p>Comets</p></li><li><p>Comet</p></li><li><p>CometsComposed of ice and dustHave tails when the approach the sunDust tailIs the easiest to seeDust is pushed away from the comet by solar radiation and can be hundreds of miles longIon tail Is a bluish colorIs formed when gas is stripped from its electrons and blown back by solar windIon tail</p></li><li><p>Parts of a comet</p></li><li><p>Where do comets come from?Oort CloudCircular halo of comets that surround the universeComets can enter the universe from all directionsKuiper BeltIts a ring of icy objects that orbit PlutoThought to be one of the oldest things in the solar systemIt is hard to study because of the size and where it is located although it is thought that there is larger objects in the Kuiper Belt</p></li><li><p>Comet with no iceAs a comet passes by the sun it begins to loose its ice and begins to look like an asteroid.Asteroid </p></li><li><p>Asteriods</p></li><li><p>Asteroids Small rocky objects in the solar systemYou cannot see them with your eyesYou can use binoculars or a telescope to see themAsteroids are odd shapesBecause they experience many collisions and they dont have enough gravity to pull themselves back to their spherical shape</p></li><li><p>Where do asteroids come from?They come from the asteroid beltThe asteroid belt is in-between Jupiter and MarsAsteroids in the Asteroid Belt orbit the sun</p></li><li><p>Types of Asteriods</p></li><li><p>CeresBiggest asteroid its 580 miles across</p></li><li><p>Smallest Asteriod Smallest asteroid 10 meters acrossProbably smaller asteroids but they havent been detected </p></li><li><p>KleopatraMetallic asteroid</p></li><li><p>MalthideLight asteroid made up of small particles held loosely togetherAlso known as rubble piles</p></li><li><p>ErosMade mostly of rock</p></li><li><p> Trojans AsteroidsShare the same orbital path as JupiterBut they stay at least 60 degrees in front or behind Jupiter</p></li><li><p>Asteroid with moonAsteroids can have small moonsOr travel with each other in equal sizes</p><p>Asteroid with moonAsteroids orbiting each other</p></li><li><p>Metors</p></li><li><p>MeteorsAre short white objects in the night skyWe normally refer to them as shooting stars</p></li><li><p>How are they caused?Inter planetary dust (small pebble sized) that burns up when it slams into the atmosphereSlams into the atmosphere at high speeds</p></li><li><p>Meteors Once in a while a small rock might make it though the atomsphere Thus creating a colorful streak in the sky called a fireballA fireball can be mistaken as a cometSome fireballs dont vaporize all the way so the impact the Earth and are called meteorites fireball</p></li><li><p>Meteor showersHappens when the earth passes through a spot where a comet has been and left behind a lot of dustEarth goes through the dust and particles form meteors as they enter the earths atmosphere </p></li><li><p>meteorMeteor showerFireball</p></li><li><p>Moons</p></li><li><p>MoonsAre natural satellitesOrbits another bodySome planets have moons while others dontAsteroids can have moons</p></li><li><p>Planets and MoonsMercury- 0 Venus- 0Earth- 1Mars- 2Jupiter- 50Saturn- 62 (53 named)Uranus- 27Neptune- 13</p><p>Saturns moons</p></li><li><p>Moons in the solar systemLuna and CharonThought to be formed by a collision of 2 large pro-planetary objectsAsteroid moons are thought to be made the same wayTriton Is in an circular orbitIs thought to be captured by a dwarf planetProteurs Is the largest irregularly shaped moon Luna is Earths moonOne of the largest natural satellites</p></li><li><p>MoonA moon has phasesA moon orbits close to its primaryAnd thought to be form by the same collapsing region as its primaryIrregular satellites are thought to be captured by asteroidsImpacted by collisions</p></li><li><p>I will research orbits and discuss differences of what we see from the Earths surface (phases)</p></li><li><p>Types of Orbits</p><p>Irregular or RetrogradeDont have a specific orderRegular or ProgradeThe orbit is the same direction of the planetSmall moons mainly have irregular orbitsLarge moons mainly have regular orbits</p></li><li><p>Tidal LockedOuter planets are too far away to become lockedNatural satellites are tidal lockedMeans that the same face of the moon is always facing its primaryWith the exception of Hyperion (Saturns moon)</p><p>Hyperion </p></li><li><p>Earths MoonCompletes an orbit every 27.3 daysTakes us longer to see the moons orbit due to our orbit so it appears to take 29.5 daysEarths moon has a low albedo which gives it the appearance of coalSecond brightest thing in the skyAt the moons quarter phases its only 1/10 as bright as the full moon</p></li><li><p>Lunar PhasesMade by changing angles or position as the moon orbits Earth 8 phases</p></li><li><p>New moonOne of the main phasesHappens whenThe sun and the moon are approximately alignedThe back part of the moon is illuminated so we cant see it </p></li><li><p>Wanning CrescentHappens whenThe moon is less than half illuminating and is decreasing</p></li><li><p>Last QuarterOne of the main phasesOften referred to as the half moonHappens whenThe moon is at a 90 degree angle and half of it is illuminated and the other half isnt</p></li><li><p>Wanning GibbousHappens whenThe moon is more than half illuminated and is decreasing</p></li><li><p>Full MoonOne of the main phasesHappens whenThe sun and the moon are approximately alignedThe front part of the moon is illuminated so we can see it</p></li><li><p>Waxing GibbousHappens whenThe moon is more than half illuminated and is increase</p></li><li><p>First QuarterOne of the main phasesHappens whenThe moon is at a 90 degree angle and half of it is illuminated and the other half isnt</p></li><li><p>Waxing CrescentHappens whenThe moon is less than half illuminated and it is increasing</p></li><li><p>Lunar CycleFull cycle takes about a monthSolar eclipse happens when moon blocks the sunLunar eclipse happens when Earths shadow covers the moonSolar eclipse Lunar eclispe </p></li><li><p> I will analyze the effect the moons orbit has on our planet.</p></li><li><p>Tidal ForcesForce of gravity that gets weaker and weaker as you pull awayThe gravitational pull is greater on one side of the Earth thus creating a tidal force</p></li><li><p>Tidal ForcesPlanets are not perfectly round so a deformation happensHappens to the oceans and creates a bulges on both sides of the planetTides are the bulgesTides is when the oceans water goes up and down twice a day</p></li><li><p> I will predict what would happen if Earth had a 2nd moon or the distance to the moon was increased or decreased. </p></li><li><p>Second Moon The tides would be greatly effectedHeight of the tides would either be greater or smallerThere would be more than 2 high tides a dayThe cycle of tides would be less than it is nowThere would be more solar eclipses </p></li><li><p>Distance Increase of distance the slower Earth would spinDecrease of distance the faster Earth would spinWhy?Between the moon and the nearest bulge on the Earth is a type of movement of force that drain kinetic energy and angular movement</p></li><li>Bibliography"ASTRONOMY FOR BEGINNERS." ASTRONOMY FOR BEGINNERS. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Astronomy Picture of the Day." Astronomy Picture of the Day. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "BBC - Homepage." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . Conger, Cristen, and Molly Edmonds. "HowStuffWorks - Learn How Everything Works!." HowStuffWorks - Learn How Everything Works!. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Curious About Astronomy: What would happen if Earth had more than one moon?." Curious About Astronomy? Ask an Astronomer. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Curious About Astronomy? Comets, Meteors and Asteroids." Curious About Astronomy? Ask an Astronomer. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Moon Phases / Lunar Phases Explained." Moon Information Resource And Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "NASA - Home." NASA - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "NASA International Space Station Shuttle Missions Solar System Google Earth Science and Technology Universe Astronomy Moon and Mars Milky Way Planet Earth Satellite Space Telescope." NASA International Space Station Shuttle Missions Solar System Google Earth Science and Technology Universe Astronomy Moon and Mars Milky Way Planet Earth Satellite Space Telescope. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "NASA Science." NASA Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Natural satellite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "News Line 365 : Bollywood news, Tech News, Sports News from India." News Line 365 : Bollywood news, Tech News, Sports News from India. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Science Magazine Daily News." Science Magazine Daily News. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers." StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Sustainable News &amp; Tips, Eco-Friendly Info at Sustainability Ninja." Sustainable News &amp; Tips, Eco-Friendly Info at Sustainability Ninja. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "The Daily Inquirer." The Daily Inquirer. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Thunderbolts home." Thunderbolts home. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "Tidal Forces." Windows to the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. . "nationalgeographic.com." nationalgeographic.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. </li></ul>