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  • PROFESSIONALIZATION AND THE REFORM OF TEACHING, TEACHERS, AND

    TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: A

    CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

    by

    Min-Ho Yeom

    B.A., Chonnam National University, 1988

    M.A., Chonnam National University, 1992

    Ph.D., Chonnam National University, 1997

    Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of

    the School of Education in partial fulfillment

    of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    University of Pittsburgh

    2005

  • UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

    SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

    This dissertation was presented

    by

    Min-Ho Yeom

    It was defended on

    17 March 2005

    and approved by

    Cynthia E. Coburn, Ph.D., Policy, Organization, Measurement, and Evaluation, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley

    Akiko Hashimoto, Ph.D., Sociology, Associate Professor, University of Pittsburgh

    David M. Post, Ph.D., Comparative and International Education, Associate Professor, Penn State University

    .

    Clementina Acedo, Ph.D., Administrative and Policy Studies, Assistant Professor, University of Pittsburgh Dissertation Co-Director

    Mark B. Ginsburg, Ph.D., Administrative and Policy Studies, Professor, University of Pittsburgh Dissertation Co-Director

    ii

  • Copyright © 2005 by Min-Ho Yeom

    iii

  • PROFESSIONALIZATION AND THE REFORM OF TEACHING, TEACHERS, AND

    TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: A

    CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

    Min-Ho Yeom, Ph.D.

    University of Pittsburgh, 2005

    This study compares how the U.S. education and Korean education reform documents

    conceptualize teaching, teachers, and teacher education and examines how, if any, the discourses

    of one country influence those of the other. Attention is given especially to the ways in which

    reform documents incorporate the ideology of professionalism in framing the problems with

    teaching, teachers, and teacher education and in proposing the remedies for them.

    Eighteen specific reform documents issued by the two countries’ governmental and non-

    governmental organizations at the national level since the 1980s were selected and analyzed by

    employing critical discourse analysis primarily and interpretative text analysis. Both an

    inductive and a deductive process were used in order to identify the problems identified, the

    remedies suggested, and versions of the ideology of professionalism articulated. For a cross-

    country analysis, a juxtaposition approach was employed to classify the similarities and

    differences with respect to major themes.

    The findings show that there exist some continuing global convergences and a rare case

    for local divergence to construct reform discourses on teaching, teachers, and teacher education.

    A few major common themes found where examining the problems identified and the remedies

    suggested in the two countries are: The insistence of the weakness of pre-service teacher

    iv

  • education; Perpetuation of the image of the teaching occupation as a profession; Extending the

    length of pre-service teacher education; Increased control; Contesting the idea of teacher

    autonomy; Failure of the market oriented compensation system; Questioning of differentiating

    staffing patterns; and Increasing U.S. influence on the Korean education reform. Overall, the

    way in which the two countries construct educational reform discourse are similar in terms of

    drawing explicitly on elements from a functionalist (or trait theory) version of the ideology of

    professionalism. However, the Korean documents put more emphasis on the autonomy of

    teachers compared to the U.S. documents, where this issue was less visible. Regarding the

    direction of influence between the U.S. and Korea, Korea shows a tendency to appropriate ideas

    and move toward a structure and set of practices evidenced in the U.S. at an earlier period.

    v

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    The last six years have been a period full of challenges, patience, and courage, which I

    could not have imagined before getting started in the program of Social and Comparative

    Analysis in Education on the Department of Administrative and Policy Studies at the University

    of Pittsburgh. I, as an international student, have been a person who must adjust in accordance

    with a life style, rule, and culture that don’t seem to consider the time and experiences I had had

    in my mother language. Therefore, I had to be born again as a person who could survive in this

    academic environment or fail. Unfortunately, in considering the language barriers facing me

    every moment, it never turned out that I would be comfortable with language issues and be able

    to command English. However, I came to realize that both learning the language and working in

    second language were not as important as the people in my life who helped me accomplish my

    goals. I could not make anything of myself without advisors, family, and friends.

    Having Prof. Mark B. Ginsburg as my academic/research advisor as well as a co-director

    of my dissertation committee has been both a great honor and a joy. He has challenged me and

    guided my studies along the right track as accurately as he could, and supported my taking part

    in various research projects during my time of study. With his feedback on my study, I could be

    clear on the ideas, knowledge, and methods I put into it, and I could learn how important having

    dialogue with colleagues is. I was always nervous and excited whenever I heard his promise that

    “I am going to read your draft soon” as he was asked to review my manuscripts. From the first

    stage of incubation of this study to the final stage of my writing, he has read every word I wrote

    with care and commented on most of it with passion and helped me finalize the dissertation. He

    has my endless gratitude.

    vi

  • Working with Prof. Clementina Acedo, as a co-director of my dissertation committee, has

    also been an invaluable experience in considering she encouraged me to push forward to finalize

    the dissertation along with thoughtful feedback on this study. Also, thanks to the Indonesian

    secondary case study that I did under her direction in the Secondary Education Case Studies

    Project, I could learn more about international education reform policy analysis. Prof. Cynthia

    Coburn gave me insightful feedback to make the argument of the study clear. I had a great

    learning experience with her when I was involved in the project of reading policy and practice in

    California at Learning Research and Development Center. With a careful reading, she gave me

    perceptive guidance to get through the dissertation. Prof. Akiko Hashimoto was a person who

    gave me a warm encouragement when I faced a hard situation. Taking her class, Global and

    Comparative Seminar, having the experience to learn various nations’ national identification

    formation and history was a memorable time. Being able to have Prof. David Post on my

    dissertation committee was serendipitous when Mark made a decision to leave for a Project in

    Egypt. I am truly honored to have him on my committee.

    My friends, Prof. Anthony Petrosky and his wife, Prof. Allen Bishop deserve my full

    appreciation for this dissertation. In a time of economic difficulties or of deep skepticism about

    my capabilities, Tony and Allen with brotherhood and friendship gave me great care, helping me

    to focus on my work. Thanks to their unwavering support, I at least could retain my confidence

    to work and study without any trouble. My teachers and friends in Chonnam National University

    and in Munyon in Korea deserve my deep gratitude for encouraging me to study at the

    University of Pittsburgh. Special thanks go to Prof. Jong Sul Kim, Porf. Hong Gil Lee, Prof.

    Kyung Soon Lee, Prof. Jee Hun Lee, Prof. Jae Cheol Shin, and Prof. Kyu Chul Ahn whom I

    admire for guiding me into the world of the global academia.

    vii

  • My special gratitude goes to two friends, Dr. Son Ku Kim and Dr. Yong Sook Park, for

    their contribution collecting reform documents, proposals, and related research articles. Son Ku

    used his own time to collect the Korean data I was looking for while he was busy working for the

    Presidential Commission for Educational Innovation in 2004. Dr. Park, senior researcher

    specializing in teacher policy and working for the Korean Educational Development Institute,

    was willing to share valuable materials and articles she had while she was working on the

    Department of Administrative and Policy Studies at the University of Pittsburgh as a visiting

    scholar. Moreover, she contributed her time to review my dissertation in order to make sure of

    the accuracy of translation for particular terms as well the citation of Korean data into English,

    issues raised b

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