professionalization of project management
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DESCRIPTIONProfessionalization of Project Management By Dr. Bill
I TO MAP THE FUTURE
Project Management Institute
TO MAP THE FUTURE
Dr. Bill L. Zwerrnan, PhD, MA, BA Professor, Department o f Sociology, University o f Cakary Dr. Janice L. Thomas, PhD, MBA, BSc
Program Director, M B A in Project Management Centre for Innovative Management, Athabasca University
A4urut Profasur, Project M a q m t Speaalization, University o f Cakaty Susan Haydt, MA, BA
with the assistance of:
Terry A. Williams, MCS, BA Research Assistant
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Zwerman, William L. Professionalization of project management: exploring the past to map the
futurelprincipal investigator, Bill L. Zwerman with Janice Thomas; Susan Haydt, Terry A. Williams, research assistant.
p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-930699-06-9 (paperback]
1. Project management- Standards. 2. Project management- Licenses. 3. Project management-Research. 4. Professional prac- tice. 5. Occupational surveys. 1. Thomas, Janice, 1959- 11. Project Man- agement Institute. HI. Title
ISBN 13: 978-1-930699-06-9 ISBN 10: 1-930699-06-9
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I T his research report was made possible by the strong vision of the Project Management Institute (PMIm), the world's leading not-for-profit project management professional association, in order to advance research in project management.
We particularly want to acknowledge the Project Management Institute Educational Foundation for providing funding to launch this project.
We are also deeply indebted to PMI for project support, as well as the PMI Research Program Member Advisory Group (RMAG) for their guidance. In particular, the authors value the opportunity to have worked with key people at PMI who are driving project manage- ment research forward: Dr. Harry Stefanou, PMI Research Manager during the execution of this project; members of the RMAG; and Eva Goldrnan, PMI Research Associate.
We are also.gratefu1 to the practitioners, consultants, and execu- tives, as well as the academic community, for their contributions, interest and support. For all who helped us ground this research by providing resources, granting interviews, answering surveys, attend- ing lectures and offering questions, critiques and confirmations, thank you for the time, ideas, and support. We also sincerely thank our universities for the support they provided to us for this research (Athabasca University and the University of Calgary).
We have looked intently at the study results and selected what is believed to be the most useful information for readers. These results have been presented to audiences around the world, who reinforced interest in the topic and the authors' belief in the value of what has been accomplished. However, the true value of this study, as with all research, comes ultimately from the ideas and discussions it generates amongst those who read it. The readers are the people who will judge this work and determine its value, both in practice and in theory.
As researchers know, work of this nature is truly a labor of love. We have worked diligently and enthusiastically over the last two years to conduct this research, learning much more about topics than we are able to enumerate here, and overcoming many challenges. In
the process, we have built a strong research team that we value highly.
For those who supported us behind the scenes, we thank you for your patience, support and love. We could not have done this research without your help.
Table of Contents
Tables and Figures ix
Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Study Background 3
Research Objectives 3 Research Questions 3 Research Approach 4
Team Structure and Management Process 4 Researchers and Their Background 4 Timing 6 Deliverables 6 Report Structure 6
Chapter 2: Theoretical Foundation 9 The Sociological Study of Professions 10
Definitions: Occupation, Profession, Professional 11 The Traits of a Profession 1 1 The Process of Professionalization 13
Power and the Professions 14 Exploring the Professionalization Journey 18
Theory and Methods 19 Strategies of Professionalization by Occupation 21
Issues in Relation to Professionalization 22 In Summary 34 Lessons Learned, Questions Raised and Implications for Project Management 34
Chapter 3: Study Methodology 37 Research Design Overview 37
Web Site Survey Methodology 38 Sampling and Data Analysis 38 Notes About Web Site Citations 40
Online Survey Methodology 40 Sampling Frame 40 Survey Structure 42 Survey Logistics 42
Chapter 4: Findings from Nursing Web Site Survey 45 Scope of Practice Issues 46
Protection from Semi-Professional Invasion 46 Role Expansion 49
Registration/Licensing Issues 54 Monopoly over Title 55 Education and Accreditation Strategies in Nursing 57
Raising Minimum Education Requirements 57 Continued Education/Continued Competence 60 Accreditation 62
Tensions with Bureaucracy/Employer 63 Issues Surrounding the Body of Knowledge 69
The Theory Base and Research 69 Standardized Nursing Language 71
Professional Associations: Innovation in Structures 72 The Switch to a College Model 73 Disaffiliation from National Association 74
Implications for Project Management from Nursing's Professionalization Journey 75
Chapter 5: Findings From Social Work Web Site Survey 81 Scope of Practice Issues 82 Licensing and Certification Issues 85
National Certification 85 Licensure and Registration 86 Monopoly over Use of Title 90 Education and Accreditation Strategies 91
Minimum Education for EntrylPractice 91 Continued Education/Continued Competence 94 Accreditation Strategies 97
Issues Surrounding the Body of Knowledge 98 Implications for Project Management from Social Work's Professionalization Journey 102
Chapter 6: Findings from Teaching Web Site Survey 109 Scope of Practice Issues 11 1
Scope of Practice and Paraprofessionals 11 1 Role Expansion of Teachers 113
Licensing and Certification Issues 114 General Observations about Licensing/Certification 1 14 Voluntary Certification: The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards 1 18
Monopoly Over Use of Title 122 Education and Accreditation Strategies 123
Entry Level Strategies 123 Continued Education/Professional Development 124 Accreditation Strategies 129
Issues Surrounding the Body of Knowledge 129
Implications for Project Management from the Teacher's Professionalization Journey 132
Chapter 7: Findings from Comparative Online Survey 139 Association Information 140 Association Age 143 Current Level of Professionalization 146 Threats to the Professionalization Effort 149 Strategies for Professionalization 152 Conclusions 154
Chapter 8: Insights and Future Direction 155 Evaluating Project Management as a Profession 156
Project Management's Attainment of Characteristics of a Profession 156 Becoming a Profession 158 Role of Power in Professionalization of Project Management 159
Comparing Project Management to Other Professions 160 Learning from the Professionalization Journeys of Comparable Occupations 161 Learning from the Challenges and Actions of Professionalization across Occupations 168
Future Directions: Important Questions for Consideration 168
Professionalization of What? 168 Professionalization for Whom? 169 Impact of Professionalization on Practice 174 What Would a Global Profession Look Like: How Would One Be Created? 175 What are Prospects for the Creation of a Global Project Management Profession? 176
Conclusions 177 Crosstable 1: Question 14 Traits-Occupational Groups' Firmness of Grip 179 Crosstable 2: Question 18 Threats-Occupational Groups' Degrees of Challenge 181
References 183 Project Management Web Sites and Discussion Lists 186 Nursing Web Sites 186 Social Work Web Sites 187 Teaching Web Sites 188
Tables and Figur