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  • Private Equity Deskbook 2011

    © 2011 Probitas Partners

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2010 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.

    Probitas Partners is a leading independent knowledge, innovation and solutions provider to private markets clients. It has three integrated global practices that include placement of alternative investment products, portfolio management and secondary fund advisory. These services are offered by a team of employee owners dedicated to leveraging the firm’s vast knowledge and technical resources to provide the best results for its clients.

    On an ongoing basis, Probitas Partners offers research and investment tools on the alternative investment market as aids to its institutional investor and general partner clients. Probitas Partners compiles data from various trade and other sources and then vets and enhances that data via its team’s broad knowledge of the market. Unless otherwise noted, charts included in this white paper are from the Private Equity Deskbook 2011.

    n. [from Latin probitas: good, proper, honest.] adherence to the highest principles, ideals and character.

    probity ¯ ¯˘

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 1

    C o n t e n t s

    Market Trends ............................................................................... 2

    The Global Economy: Where Do We Stand? ............................ 4

    Fundraising Forecast and Dynamics ....................................... 6

    Fundraising Dynamic for 2011 .................................................. 10

    The Buyout Market: Investor Focus and Concerns .................................................... 12

    Where Do We Go from Here? ...................................................... 16

    Distressed Debt: Where Did the 100-Year Flood Go? ........................................... 19

    Asia and the Emerging Markets: Searching for Growth ................................................................. 22

    Europe: Beginning to Rebound ................................................... 26

    Venture Capital: Armageddon or the Next New Thing? ...................................... 30

    At the Margin: The Search for New Opportunities ........................................... 34

    Secondary Market: Back on Track ............................................ 37

    Forecasts for 2011 ......................................................................... 40

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.2

    M a r k e t Tr e n d sPrivate equity valuations and transaction activity in developed markets have rebounded

    • Portfolios are rebounding from their spring 2009 lows, and public market indices are back to pre-Lehman collapse levels, if not their October 2007 highs

    • However, fundamental economic issues — especially high unemployment and heavy government debt loads — continue to plague many developed markets; recent signs of GDP growth and unemployment moderation are the first early signs of real recovery

    ...Though private equity fundraising will continue to be sluggish

    • The overhang of outstanding unfunded commitments continues to burden investors with large legacy portfolios, most of whom are triaging current relationships

    Many investors are focusing on the growing economics of the emerging markets

    • Investors are particularly interested in the BRIC countries of China, Brazil, and India, though Russia trails badly in investor interest

    • The MIST countries (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey) are now being touted as the next group of emerging market leaders

    • Mega-buyout funds with global mandates are increasingly investing in the larger emerging markets

    ...Though there are concerns that these countries are overheating

    • There are acknowledged concerns in China and Brazil, where their governments are taking steps to slow growth to control inflation

    Distressed investment opportunities have been limited by the dramatic recovery in the capital markets

    • High-yield bond issuance exploded as investors sought high returns, with much of that issuance used to refinance existing debt instead of supporting new transactions

    • Bankruptcy rates have plunged from the historic highs of 2009 to near record lows

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 3

    Buyout purchase price multiples rebounded more quickly than expected

    • Average buyout purchase price multiples in the U.S. and Europe are already back to 2006 levels, increasing much more quickly than in past economic cycles

    • While debt is more available than the past two years, leverage ratios remain constrained

    The venture market is still undergoing significant secular challenges

    • Median ten-year horizon returns for venture capital are now negative; even established venture capitalists are grappling with those issues while “zombie” funds raised at the last venture market peak of 2000 continue to die

    • Many limited partners have given up on the sector; others are taking a contrarian approach, hoping that a decline in fundraising will translate into increasing future returns

    Regulatory issues have become more settled

    • The AIFM Directive and Dodd-Frank have become law in Europe and the U.S., though implementation details are still being worked out

    • In Shanghai, details of a program to make RMB funds accessible to foreign investors is progressing

    The wild cards: energy prices and Japan

    • Turmoil in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 resulted in a steep rise in oil prices even though the countries most affected are relatively small producers; further turmoil in key Gulf states could result in more significant rises with dramatic knock-on economic effects globally

    • Besides the immediate death and destruction, the impacts of the earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear incident in Japan are developing into much larger issues for Japan and its trading partners

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.4

    Chart I Global Stock Performance: July 2007 to January 2011

    Perc

    enta

    ge C

    hang

    e

    60

    40

    20

    0

    -20

    -40

    -60

    -80

    Jul’0

    7A

    ug’0

    7Se

    p’07

    Oct

    ’07

    Nov

    ’07

    Dec

    ’07

    Jan’

    08Fe

    b’08

    Mar

    ’08

    Apr

    ’08

    May

    ’08

    Jun’

    08Ju

    l’08

    Aug

    ’08

    Sep’

    08O

    ct’0

    8N

    ov’0

    8D

    ec’0

    8Ja

    n’09

    Feb’

    09M

    ar’0

    9A

    pr’0

    9M

    ay’0

    9Ju

    n’09

    Aug

    ’09

    Sep’

    09O

    ct’0

    9N

    ov’0

    9D

    ec’0

    9Ja

    n’10

    Feb’

    10M

    ar’1

    0A

    pr’1

    0M

    ay’1

    0Ju

    n’10

    Jul’1

    0A

    ug’1

    0Se

    p’10

    Oct

    ’10

    Nov

    ’10

    Dec

    ’10

    Jan’

    11

    Source: Yahoo! Finance

    The Global Economy: Where Do We Stand?

    2009 was the trough of the “Great Recession,“ the worst global economic crisis since the Great Depression. As summarized in Chart II, GDP shrank or stalled in almost every economy in the world, with only China, India and Indonesia barreling through strongly. As evidenced in Chart III, the rebound in GDP growth globally has been striking. During this market cycle, emerging markets in general have been growth leaders, with developed and emerging Europe lagging significantly along with Japan. Within Europe there are major differences, with Sweden and Poland forecast to grow at 4% or more in 2011, while many of the countries of Southern Europe remain weak.

    The stock market indices highlighted in Chart I, further reflect this growth in GDP. While most of the developed market indices continue to perform below market highs set in 2007, all are off the market lows of late 2008 and 2009. The one stock market index

    still showing significant weakness, however, is the Nikkei, which was performing 40% below its July 2007 value even before the earthquake and ensuing tsunami took place. The Brazilian and Indian indices, on the other hand, have been the clear market leaders, though they have weakened somewhat in the past few months.

    The economic strength evidenced by these numbers sets the table for a stronger private equity investment market in 2011 for most sectors and geographies — with two large caveats. Oil prices have increased over 20% since the beginning of the year due to political turmoil in various countries in North Africa and the Middle East; continued high prices or a further surge from this point could have a significant impact on economic forecasts. Meanwhile, the global ramifications of the earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear reactor incident in Japan are still developing, but are likely to create winners and losers in certain industries in Japan and amongst its trading partners globally.

    Brazil (IBOVESPA) China (SSE Comp) India (BSE SENSEX)

    U.S. (DJIA)) UK (FTSE 100) Germany (DAX) Japan (Nikkei 225)

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 5

    Chart II GDP Growth in 2009 %YoY

    Source: JP Morgan Global Data Watch (December 2010)

    Russian Federation -7.9%

    United States-2.6% China 9.1%

    Australia 1.3%

    Brazil-0.6%

    Developed Europe-3.7%

    New Zealand

    -1.7%

    India7.4%

    Indonesia 4.5%

    Japan -6.3%

    Thailand -2.3%

    Philippines0.9%

    Emerging Europe-4.2%

    Mexico-6.1%

    Argentina-2.0%

    Chile-1.5%

    Venezuela-3.3%

    South Africa -1.7%

    ≥4%2.0 to 3.9%0 to1.9%

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.6

    Fundraising Forecast and Dynamics

    On a global basis the economy is rapidly improving, but the dynamics of private equity fundraising are subject to different forces keeping it largely flat. Many of the largest global investors in private equity are institutions based in the U.S. and Europe. Their portfolios, especially their alternative asset allocations, are still under stress from the financial crisis, with a large hangover of undrawn commitments from the boom

    years that continues to limit their ability to make new commitments. This impact is most evident in the fundraising numbers for the U.S. and Europe shown in Charts IV and V.

    The dramatic decline in fundraising for the U.S. and Europe in 2009 was matched by a poor 2010, with continued weakness in most sub-sectors of private equity. The mega- buyout sector, which had driven fundraising growth from 2005 through 2007, led the fundraising decline over the last two years.

    Chart IV Commitments to U.S. Private Equity Partnerships by Sector

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    350

    300

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Private Equity AnalystNote: Does not include funds-of-funds

    Buyouts/Corporate Finance MezzanineSecondaries/Other Venture Capital

    13.3 19.529.8 31.5

    50.1

    90.7 100.0

    160.5

    107.0

    58.848.0

    91.4

    152.2

    236.4

    297.0

    236.5

    87.5 80.0

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 7

    Chart V Commitments to European Private Equity Partnerships

    EUR

    in b

    illio

    ns

    75

    60

    45

    30

    15

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas PartnersNote: “Corporate Finance” includes buyout, growth capital, mezzanine, secondaries, distressed debt, and turnaround funds

    24.419.0

    55.860.2 61.9

    70.5

    16.1 15.9

    Corporate Finance Venture Capital

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.8

    The story in emerging markets is somewhat different. Institutional investors looking for growth opportunities returned to the Asian and Latin American markets more quickly in 2010 as outlined in Charts VI and VII. The Latin American market actually reached an all-time fundraising high during 2010, driven by large closings for the pan-Latin American

    funds Advent and Southern Cross, which closed on a combined $3.3 billion during the year. In Asia, fundraising nearly doubled during the year (though still well below record levels of 2007 and 2008) with the growing interest in renminbi-denominated funds in China providing significant impetus.

    Chart VI Commitments to Asian Private Equity Partnerships

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Asian Venture Capital JournalNote: 2010 total is a preliminary figure

    2.0 2.35.3

    6.7 5.6 5.9 7.4

    16.217.9

    13.2

    6.5 7.3

    13.4

    26.6

    41.2

    50.9 50.2

    14.9

    29.0

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 9

    Chart VII Commitments to Latin American Private Equity PartnershipsU

    SD in

    bill

    ions

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: EMPEA, LAVCA

    0.1

    0.8 0.9

    1.5

    3.43.7

    1.8

    2.6

    0.60.4 0.4

    0.7

    1.3

    2.7

    4.4 4.5

    2.2

    5.6

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.10

    Fundraising Dynamic for 2011

    Though fundraising remained weak in the developed markets last year, there was some evidence that the market was improving. Investors began to see more activity in their buyout and venture capital portfolios, with more capital being drawn down for new investments and cash being returned as exit markets or refinancing markets opened up. Given the normal five-year investment period for most funds, the overhang of undrawn commitments impacting investor allocations will increasingly be drawn or expire as we move through the year.

    As investors re-engage, they will be increasingly focused on middle-market buyouts and growth capital in the U.S. and Europe, as well as Asian-focused country funds, as detailed in Chart VIII. Investors are not, however, investing blindly in these sectors. Given the problems over the past five years, investors are increasingly focusing on historical performance and intensive due diligence when evaluating investment opportunities. Additionally, most investors with limited allocations are actively triaging portfolios, deciding which fund managers not to back in the future to make room very selectively for new relationships. For new relationships, investors with established portfolios are looking for exposure to those sectors or geographies that are light or non-existent in their current portfolios in order

    to increase diversification and generate alpha, or are seeking to upscale the quality of existing managers in established sectors and geographies.

    In 2009 and 2010 a large number of fund managers delayed returning to market to avoid launching funds into a difficult fundraising environment and with less compelling realizations records. Many of them are now faced with the investment periods of previous funds coming to an end and simply cannot delay coming back to market any longer. For these fund managers, the primary deal market has begun to thaw, however, and opportunities for investment (and realizations or recapitalizations)are increasing.

    Global fundraising is likely to increase modestly in 2011, with certain sectors stronger than others. The key trend for 2011 will be many more fund managers returning to the market competing for a constrained pool of available capital commitments. The result will be a self-selection of the best fund managers (or those with the greatest momentum in fundraising) winning quicker closes, and those with less compelling propositions or an inability to garner demonstrable support from their existing limited partners to create scarcity languishing with protracted or smaller than targeted fundraises.

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 11

    Chart VIII Private Equity Sectors of Interest“During 2011, I plan to focus most of my attention on investing in the following sectors: (choose no more than five)”

    U.S. middle-market buyouts ($500 MM–$2.5 B)

    Growth capital funds

    U.S. small-market buyouts ($5 B)

    Timber funds

    European/Israeli venture capital

    Percentage of Respondents (%)

    Source: Probitas Partners’ Private Equity Institutional Investor Trends Survey for 2011

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    46

    8

    39

    37

    25

    17

    13

    11

    9

    5

    4

    2

    9

    13

    15

    18

    19

    19

    22

    27

    30

    33

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.12

    Chart X Average European LBO Purchase Price/Adjusted EBITDA Multiples

    Mul

    tiple

    of E

    BITD

    A

    12x

    10x

    8x

    6x

    4x

    2x

    0

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCDNote: For middle-market LBOs, data from 2009 not statistically significant

    The Buyout Market: Investor Focus and Concerns

    Leveraged buyouts are the dominant form of private equity investing in North America and Europe. As previously noted in our survey, middle-market buyouts in those markets are a major target for investors in 2011. One of the reasons for that attraction is historical trends: during past recessions, prices paid by fund managers declined significantly and usually stayed at those lower levels for several years. This holds true for the

    U.S. and Europe during the 2000 recession, as demonstrated in Charts IX and X. That has not been the case in the current recovery, however. 2010 saw a steep rise in purchase price multiples, especially at the larger end of the market where both in the U.S. and Europe they ended the year higher than they were in 2006. The trend for small and middle-market buyouts is less certain simply because in 2009, as activity declined, Standard & Poor’s was unable to track enough of these transactions to generate statistically significant data.

    Chart IX Average U.S. LBO Purchase Price/Adjusted EBITDA Multiples

    Mul

    tiple

    of E

    BITD

    A

    12x

    10x

    8x

    6x

    4x

    2x

    0

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCDNote: For middle-market LBOs, data from 2009 not statistically significant

    Large LBOs (>$500 MM)Middle-Market LBOs (

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 13

    The drop in deal flow in 2009 can be attributed not only to market volatility, but also to the decline in the availability of debt. The loan markets, as illustrated in Charts XI and XII, that support buyouts surged from 2004 through 2007 in the U.S., peaking in the summer of 2007 as a liquidity crisis began in advance of the recession. The European markets followed a roughly similar pattern. The driving force behind this was the growth of the mega-buyout market, which generated

    loans of size and scope that were attractive for CLO vehicles. The collapse of that market resulted in the drying up of the dominant source of debt available to support buyouts. The rebound in these loans only began in 2010 and, though considerably below its peak years, the rebound has continued on into 2011. At the larger end of the market, there has also been a surge of activity in high-yield bonds (this will be discussed later in the section covering distressed debt).

    Chart XI U.S. Leveraged Sponsored Loan Volume

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    350

    300

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCD

    Large Middle-Market

    67.484.4 84.5

    60.5 61.5

    114.7

    58.4

    145.1

    234.1

    293.4

    120.3

    24.432.6 32.6

    Chart XII European Buyout Loan Volume

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    200

    175

    150

    125

    100

    75

    50

    25

    0

    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCDNote: Reflects total sources of funding of initial and secondary buyouts by a private equity firm — excludes recaps, refinancing, etc.

    Funded Sr. and 2nd Lien Bank Debt Other Sources

    13.3 19.725.0

    38.7

    110.0

    164.5152.3

    69.3

    9.1

    47.2 53.739.4

    31.5

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.14

    Average debt multiples for corporate leveraged buyouts have largely tracked the overall availability of debt in the market. As Charts XIII and XIV show, the amount of debt applied to individual buyout transactions

    rebounded in 2010 (and continues to do so in 2011) but remains significantly off 2007 market peak levels, a pattern unlike that demonstrated for purchase price multiples.

    Chart XIII Average Debt Multiples of U.S. Corporate LBO Loans

    Deb

    t/EB

    ITD

    A

    7x

    6x

    5x

    4x

    3x

    2x

    1x

    0

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCD

    Large LBOs (Issuers with EBITDA

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 15

    With deal volumes increasing, purchase price multiples rising, and debt still constrained, an additional factor in the purchase equation must be examined: the amount of equity required to buy companies. For buyouts, as detailed in Chart XV, the amount of equity as a percentage of the purchase price in both the U.S. and Europe hit new highs in 2009, and although that percentage declined slightly in

    the U.S. in 2010, it actually increased further in Europe. Companies purchased with a higher percentage of equity should present less risky investments, all things being equal; however, for those fund managers whose historical performance was heavily driven by financial leverage, the higher use of equity could spell lower returns for investors.

    Chart XV Equity Contribution to Buyouts at Purchase

    Perc

    enta

    ge (%

    )

    50

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Source: Standard & Poor’s LCD

    Large LBOs (>$500 MM)Middle-Market LBOs (

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.16

    Where Do We Go from Here?

    As we began to exit the recession in 2009 and 2010, many institutional investors felt that 2010 and 2011 vintage buyout funds would be exceptionally strong performers. In the U.S. specifically (where there is more historical data), there has been a pattern of strong vintage years for buyout funds coming off of a recession or a financial crisis, as highlighted in Chart XVI.

    In this cycle, however, that historical pattern is at risk. In the past, purchase price multiples declined significantly during periods of recession or financial crises and recovered slowly. (As previously shown in Charts IX and X, this trend occurred during the Asian and Russian crises as well as during the recession of the early 2000s.) During such post-recessionary periods, fund managers were able to buy companies inexpensively with the wind at their backs. The steep rise in

    purchase price multiples over the last year, especially at the large end of the market, combined with lower levels of leverage and a less clear fundamental economic recovery, make that typical pattern much more difficult to replicate this cycle.

    What makes this cycle different for private equity and buyouts in particular? One of the major factors is the overhang of committed but undrawn capital. Chart XVIII provides a rough estimate of the total overhang time, with the total for the buyout sector rising from just under $200 billion at the beginning of 2004 to over $400 billion at the end of 2010. The fundraising boom from 2005 through the first half of 2008 dramatically increased commitments to private equity in advance of the financial crisis. As the crisis dramatically slowed the pace of investment, as detailed in Chart XVIII, undrawn commitments began to rise.

    Black Monday Market Crash

    U.S. Recession

    Asian Currency & Russian Financial Crises

    U.S. Recession

    Periods of Financial StressTop Quartile Returns

    Chart XVI Historical Returns for U.S. Buyouts

    Top

    Qua

    rtile

    IRRs

    (%)

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1984

    1986

    1988

    1990

    1992

    1994

    1996

    1998

    2000

    2002

    2004

    2006

    Source: Thomson Venture Economics; Probitas Partners

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 17

    Chart XVII Private Equity Deal Volume

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns900

    800

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    0

    2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Thomson Venture EconomicsNote: As of February 2011; Deal volume includes both equity and debt

    101.354.4 46.2 66.0

    141.2185.6

    434.6

    773.7

    344.9

    261.6

    Chart XVIII Capital Overhang — Undrawn Private Equity Commitments

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    900

    800

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    0

    Dec

    ’03

    Dec

    ’04

    Dec

    ’05

    Dec

    ’06

    Dec

    ’07

    Dec

    ’08

    Dec

    ’09

    Dec

    ’10

    Source: Preqin

    332 317

    410

    699

    751 743

    676

    578

    Buyout Total Other Private Equity

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.18

    Not immediately obvious from these charts are the deadlines that many fund managers are operating under for capital deployment and the potential effects of these deadlines. Most buyout funds have a five-year investment period, after which new investments cannot be made and unfunded commitments are extinguished. Those 2006 and 2007 vintage funds that have significant undrawn capital are under pressure to put that capital to work before those investment periods come to an end. Many have begun to negotiate investment period extensions of up to a year with their investors to relieve some of the pressure, but the urgency to put capital to work may be one factor driving up prices much earlier in this market cycle.

    At this point, there is no “free lunch.” Simply investing in middle-market buyout funds in the U.S. or Europe will not yield substantial sector-driven returns. The driver of returns, as it almost always has been, is manager selection. Managers with strong operational expertise that can drive and create value in portfolio companies have always been strong performers. Fund managers with that relevant experience, investment discipline, and a truly value-added approach are likely to outperform this cycle as well.

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 19

    Distressed Debt: Where Did the 100-Year Flood Go?

    Going into 2009, the sector most favored in Probitas Partners’ annual investor survey was distressed debt, with turnaround/restructuring funds also an area of significant interest. The lack of leverage for buyouts, that began to develop in the summer of 2007, was widely thought to herald the beginning of the next distressed cycle even before AIG and Lehman Brothers appeared on investors’ radar screens. In 2007 and early 2008, many investors aggressively committed capital to these strategies in anticipation of what many thought was going to be an opportunity of historic proportion.

    Two years on, it is obvious that the flood of opportunity did not develop in the way that fund managers or investors expected. The

    bottom fell out of the market in September of 2008 and continued to decline through the spring of 2009. Many fund managers who deployed significant capital early in 2008 at what they thought were attractive prices found themselves scrambling by year-end to shore up those investments instead of making new ones at much lower prices. Not until after the nadir in the spring of 2009 did markets begin to rally sharply.

    Charts XIX and XX illustrate these points. Distressed debt fundraising collapsed in 2009 as investors absorbed the negative news they were getting from fund managers in which they had recently made bets. Though corporate defaults remained high during that time, they peaked at levels actually much lower than anticipated. In 2010, defaults rapidly began to retreat, ending the year below long-term default averages.

    Chart XIX Global Distressed Debt and Turnaround Fundraising

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas Partners

    Distressed Turnaround

    5.26.9 8.7

    15.3

    29.4

    5.8

    18.5

    45.8

    0.11.0

    1.62.1

    4.64.0

    9.6

    5.6

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.20

    During late 2009 and early 2010 a number of distressed debt fund managers began to argue that the opportunity in this cycle had not yet passed them by and that the wall of upcoming debt refinancing in 2012, 2013, and 2014 still presented interesting deal flow. Charts XXI and XXII demonstrate, however, what happens when the “wall of debt” meets the “wave of liquidity.”

    After coming back significantly late in 2009, investors searching for yield drove the issuance of high-yield bonds to an all-time high in 2010. The vast majority of these new bonds, however, were not issued in support of new buyout transactions, but instead for

    refinancing of outstanding bond issues, many of which were originally issued to support buyouts. The result has been a considerable push back of the wall of debt refinancing to 2014 and beyond, providing increased room for companies to maneuver while, in many cases, also dropping their interest rate obligations.

    Though the market is faced with difficulties that may stress companies and create opportunities for distressed debt funds, it is fair to say that the mountain of opportunity that investors anticipated from this cycle simply did not materialize.

    Chart XX Annual U.S. Corporate Bond Default Rates

    Def

    ault

    Rate

    (%)

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    1985

    1986

    1987

    1988

    1989

    1990

    1991

    1992

    1993

    1994

    1995

    1996

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Source: Altman, NYU Stern; Moody’s

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 21

    Chart XXII Refinancing the Wall of Debt

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    450

    400

    350

    300

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    Source: Credit Suisse

    As of Year End 2008 As of Year End 2010

    Chart XXI High-Yield Corporate Bond Issuance

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns300

    250

    200

    150

    100

    50

    0

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Thomson Reuters

    58.7

    107.9

    129.6

    84.3

    57.2

    131.1

    96.3

    146.6136.0

    34.3

    77.8

    137.9

    43.0

    147.8

    263.2

    48

    122

    70

    172 164

    314 304

    394

    229

    186

    261

    107

    186

    66

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.22

    Asia and the Emerging Markets: Searching for Growth

    While the private equity markets in North America and Europe have experienced difficulties over the last three years dealing with falling or stagnating economies, many private equity investors looking for growth opportunities have turned to the emerging markets, especially in Asia. The following are several reasons for this:

    • Long-termGDPgrowth: Goldman Sachs first introduced the concept of the BRICs to highlight the growing importance of certain emerging market economies. Table I depicts current GDP rankings along with the long-term forecast for the fifteen largest economies in the world. Though official 2010 numbers are not available for all countries, during the year, China overtook Japan as the second largest economy in the world.

    • Economic performance over the lastcycle: In previous global economic down cycles, emerging market economies have typically been more negatively impacted than developed countries. This last cycle was quite different, with China, India, and Indonesia, for example, maintaining strong GDP growth through the downturn.

    • The MIST joining the BRICs: At the beginning of 2011, the economist who coined the acronym BRICs created another one covering the next group of rising stars. MIST includes the countries of Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey. Interestingly, Mexico and South Korea were originally considered as possible inclusions in what would later become the BRICs, especially South Korea given its advanced GDP per capita ranking.

    Table I GDP Rankings of BRICs and the MIST vs. Other Countries

    Rank 2000 2009 2050 (fcst) 2050 GDP per capita (fcst)

    1 U.S. U.S. China U.S.

    2 Japan Japan U.S. South Korea

    3 Germany China India UK

    4 UK Germany Brazil Russia

    5 France France Mexico Canada

    6 China UK Russia France

    7 Italy Italy Indonesia Germany

    8 Canada Brazil Japan Japan

    9 Brazil Spain UK Mexico

    10 Mexico Canada Germany Italy

    11 Spain Russia Nigeria Brazil

    12 South Korea India France China

    13 India Mexico South Korea Turkey

    14 Australia Australia Turkey Vietnam

    15 Netherlands South Korea Vietnam Iran

    Legend BRIC MIST G7

    Source: Actual: World Bank; Forecast: Goldman Sachs, “The N-11, More Than an Acronym,” 2007Note: India ranks 17th on the 2050 forecast of GDP per capita

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 23

    Chart XXIIV MIST Stock Indices vs. S&P 500

    Perc

    enta

    ge C

    hang

    e (%

    )

    150125100

    755025

    0-25-50-75

    -100

    Jan’

    07

    Mar

    ’07

    May

    ’07

    Jul’0

    7

    Sept

    ’07

    Nov

    ’07

    Jan’

    08

    Mar

    ’08

    May

    ’08

    Jul’0

    8

    Sept

    ’08

    Nov

    ’08

    Jan’

    09

    Mar

    ’09

    May

    ’09

    Jul’0

    9

    Sept

    ’09

    Nov

    ’09

    Jan’

    10

    Mar

    ’10

    May

    ’10

    Jul’1

    0

    Sept

    ’10

    Nov

    ’10

    Jan’

    11

    Source: Yahoo! Finance

    Chart XXIII BRIC Stock Indices vs. S&P 500

    Perc

    enta

    ge C

    hang

    e (%

    )

    150125100

    755025

    0-25-50-75

    -100

    Jan’

    07

    Mar

    ’07

    May

    ’07

    Jul’0

    7

    Sept

    ’07

    Nov

    ’07

    Jan’

    08

    Mar

    ’08

    May

    ’08

    Jul’0

    8

    Sept

    ’08

    Nov

    ’08

    Jan’

    09

    Mar

    ’09

    May

    ’09

    Jul’0

    9

    Sept

    ’09

    Nov

    ’09

    Jan’

    10

    Mar

    ’10

    May

    ’10

    Jul’1

    0

    Sept

    ’10

    Nov

    ’10

    Jan’

    11

    Source: Yahoo! Finance

    • StronginterestinAsia: Four of the eight BRIC and MIST countries are in Asia, with China clearly the largest factor in these markets.

    The public equity markets of the BRIC and MIST economies exhibited strong performance over the last cycle, a reflection of their continued GDP growth. Charts XXIII and XXIV highlight the performance of the core stock market indices in the BRIC and MIST countries compared to the S&P 500 (as a proxy for the developed markets) since the beginning of 2007. Over that period no stock market escaped the impact

    of the financial crisis, but only the Russian index underperformed the S&P 500 while Brazil and Indonesia have been significant outperformers. A number of these markets began to turn down in early 2011, even before the turmoil in North Africa and the Middle East began, driven mainly by concerns that continued strong GDP growth in those countries would continue to drive increased inflation. A continued rise in oil prices would have mixed results on these economies, with those countries with significant oil reserves benefiting while others would be negatively impacted.

    S&P 500 (U.S.) BOVESPA (Sao Paulo) SSE Composite (Shanghai)

    BSE SENSEX (Mumbai) RTSI (Moscow)

    S&P 500 (U.S.) ISE National 100 (Turkey) KOSPI Composite (South Korea)

    JKSE (Indonesia) BMV IPC (Mexico)

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.24

    Some private equity markets in emerging economies are much more developed than others, and the dynamics of investing greatly differ from the public markets. As Chart XXV demonstrates, China, Brazil, and India dominate current private equity interest in emerging markets, with Southeast Asia and Latin America following close behind. Of note, three of the top four geographies in the emerging markets are in Asia. Before the financial crisis, interest in Central Europe was much stronger than indicated in Probitas Partners’ recent survey, as those economies

    were hurt badly in the downturn. Some of those economies, like Poland for example, are now rebounding strongly. Russia has never been a particularly strong contender for private equity interest and has always trailed its BRIC counterparts due to concerns regarding property rights and political risk. Additionally, Russia’s commodity wealth makes it more volatile: across this last market cycle, the fall in energy prices in 2008 severely hurt the country’s public stock markets, though the current oil price shocks are giving it a lift.

    Chart XXV Most Attractive Emerging Markets“I find the most attractive emerging markets to be: (choose no more than two)”

    China

    Brazil

    India

    Southeast Asia

    Pan-Latin America

    Central Europe

    Turkey

    Vietnam

    Russia

    Korea

    Eastern Europe

    Mexico

    Africa

    Middle East

    Global emerging markets funds

    Do not invest in emerging markets

    Other

    Percentage of Respondents (%)

    Source: Probitas Partners’ Private Equity Institutional Investor Trends Survey for 2011

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

    30

    11

    15

    6

    3

    1

    2

    2

    2

    6

    20

    2

    21

    40

    40

    1

    3

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 25

    Table II Largest China-Focused Funds

    Fund Manager Type Size (MM)Size

    (MM USD)Vintage

    Year

    Bohai Industrial Investment Fund BOCI Private Equity Buyout/Growth CNY 20,000 2,563 2006

    Hopu USD Master Fund IHopu Investment

    ManagementBuyout/Growth USD 2,000 2,000 2008

    CDH China Fund IIICDH China

    Management Company

    Buyout/Growth USD 1,600 1,600 2007

    Yunfeng Fund Yunfeng Capital Growth/Venture CNY 10,000 1,512 2010

    CDH China Fund IVCDH China

    Management Company

    Buyout/Growth USD 1,458 1,458 2010

    Source: Probitas PartnersNote: Currency transaction at value at time of close

    Over the last several years China has been the leading country of interest for private equity investors in both the emerging markets in general and in Asia specifically. Besides its strong economic growth, another factor is driving its private equity market — the rise of funds denominated in renminbi (RMB). In most emerging markets, private equity funds are denominated in dollars or euros and not the local currency, in large part to cater to the desires of foreign investors, who dominated the limited partner base for most funds. RMB denominated funds, which until recently have been restricted to local investors due to currency regulations, have expanded rapidly over the last two years as more Chinese investors seek private equity exposure and as structures are created to allow foreign investors entry into these funds. Because the Chinese currency is

    not freely convertible, RMB funds have distinct advantages in executing deals in the Chinese market.

    As is noted in Table II, two of the five largest China-focused funds ever raised are denominated in local currency. There are at least seven local funds currently in the market targeting CNY 10,000 million or more.

    Given the local advantages associated with these vehicles, there are several U.S.-based fund managers looking to raise substantially-sized RMB funds. These funds are, however, a mixed blessing, as they actually compete with their sister funds denominated in dollars, providing a potential conflict of interest directly affecting those limited partners who can only invest in the dollar denominated funds.

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.26

    Europe: Beginning to Rebound

    Buyouts are the dominant form of private equity investment in Europe. While the dynamics of European buyouts have already been covered in detail in a previous section of this report, this section covers other topics of interest in European private equity.

    Charts XXVI and XXVII cover fundraising trends for corporate finance funds based upon geographic focus. The majority of these funds are buyout focused, but also include growth capital, mezzanine and distressed debt funds. Capital raised for Pan-European funds, the largest and best known funds, drove the expansion of the market from 2005 through 2008 and in most instances were and continue to be focused on very large buyouts. Regionally-focused funds (targeting

    defined regions such as Scandinavia or Central Europe) and funds focused on individual countries tend to be smaller vehicles, usually with a middle-market focus. Many of the Pan-European funds focused now on mega-buyouts began life as country-focused or regional middle-market funds that grew with success, while other successful middle-market firms opted to focus on their main area of expertise and have remained smaller. Some mega-buyout funds based in Europe have also begun to invest globally (as a number of their U.S. counterparts do).

    The “other” category on these two charts is also country-focused, but includes funds focused on Russia, Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey. These are treated separately as they are considered to be outside the mainstream of the Western European market.

    Chart XXVI Commitments to European Corporate Finance Partnerships

    EUR

    in b

    illio

    ns

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas PartnersNote: “Other” includes commitments to funds with a geographical focus on Russia, Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey

    22.918.0

    53.056.6 57.4

    63.9

    15.2 14.9

    Pan-European Country-FocusedRegionally-Focused Other

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 27

    Chart XXVII Number of European Corporate Finance Funds Raised

    Num

    ber

    of F

    unds

    175

    150

    125

    100

    75

    50

    25

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas PartnersNote: “Other” includes commitments to funds with a geographical focus on Russia, Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey

    8291

    121

    152144 141

    7181

    Pan-European Country-FocusedRegionally-Focused Other

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.28

    As previously noted in Chart VIII, depicting sectors of most interest from our annual investor survey, country-focused middle- market buyout funds are the sector of most interest to investors targeting Europe. Chart XXVIII provides a more detailed look at which European countries and regions are of most interest to investors. Though the top three

    geographies remained the same (although in a different order) between our 2010 and 2011 surveys, there has been a noticeable shift away from Southern Europe, in general, to Northern Europe, where interest was already strong.

    Chart XXVIII Most Attractive European Markets“For European country/regionally-focused funds, I find the most attractive markets to be: (choose no more than three)”

    Nordic Region

    Germany

    United Kingdom

    France

    Pan-European funds

    Benelux

    Central Europe

    Eastern Europe

    Italy

    Spain

    Europe via fund-of-funds

    Do not invest in Europe

    Other

    Percentage of Respondents (%)

    Source: Probitas Partners’ Private Equity Institutional Investor Trends Survey for 2011

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    20102011

    3730

    1623

    1416

    98

    1412

    65

    57

    14

    56

    814

    75

    3638

    4740

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 29

    The venture capital sector, which has always been weaker in Europe than in the U.S., developed much later, prohibiting most funds from taking part in the benefits produced by the surging technology market of the 1990s prior to the bursting of the Internet Bubble. Among both global and international investors, interest in European

    venture capital remains low and is reflected in the fundraising numbers laid out in Chart XXIX. The distribution of venture fundraising between sectors is roughly similar to that in the U.S., with cleantech being small, though increasing, and most new fund managers coming to market pursuing specialized strategies.

    Chart XXIX Commitments to European Venture Capital Partnerships

    EUR

    in b

    illio

    ns

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas Partners

    1.530.91

    2.833.51

    4.47

    6.65

    0.91 1.01

    Life Sciences CleantechTechnology Diversified

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.30

    Venture Capital: Armageddon or the Next New Thing?

    The U.S. venture capital market, as the largest, deepest and longest lived, sets patterns for much of the market globally.

    As detailed in Chart XXX below, fundraising was down slightly in 2010 from the previous year. Unlike private equity, long-term fundraising trends for venture capital have not been driven by the financial crisis, they reflect, instead, longer-term secular trends experienced by the sector. The Internet Bubble of the late 1990s drove returns and fundraising to unsustainable highs the

    venture capital market has not been able to reach since. Many limited partners are frustrated with the entire sector and have begun to give up on new investments.

    The reason for this lack of confidence is illustrated in Table III. It shows that as the high returns from the late 1990s have rolled off, indexed ten-year venture capital returns have turned negative. That is not to say that a few investors with portfolios concentrated in a very few top performing funds have not made money, but it does verify that for many investors the frequently heard complaint “I have not made any money in venture in ten years” is literally true.

    Table III U.S. Venture Capital Time Horizon Returns

    For the Period Ending Quarter 1-Year 3-Year 5-Year 10-Year 15-Year 20-Year

    September 30, 2010 3.7 8.2 -2.1 4.3 -4.6 36.9 25.6

    June 30, 2010 0.4 6.4 -2.6 4.3 -4.1 38.1 24.3

    September 30, 2009 2.1 -12.7 1.2 4.6 8.5 36.4 23.0

    Source: NVCA

    Chart XXX Commitments to U.S. Venture Capital

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Private Equity Analyst

    3.2 4.0 5.46.7

    12.8

    20.7

    48.0

    73.7

    40.2

    11.44.6

    17.6

    26.730.6 33.1

    24.7

    13.0 11.6

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 31

    Table IV Survey Respondents Targeting Venture Capital and Comparative Rankings vs. Other Sectors

    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011*

    U.S. Venture Capital% of Respondents 34% 29% 13% 16% 17%

    Category Rank 3rd 4th 8th 8th 12th

    European Venture Capital% of Respondents 5% 5% 2%

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.32

    Chart XXXI Most Attractive Venture Capital Sectors“I find the most attractive U.S. venture capital sector or strategies to be: (choose all that apply)”

    Early stage

    Late stage

    Multi-stage

    Mid-stage

    Technology funds

    Seed stage

    Life science funds

    Cleantech funds

    Funds focused on multiple sectors

    Focus solely on historic returns

    Do not invest in venture capital

    Other

    Percentage of Respondents (%)

    Source: Probitas Partners’ Private Equity Institutional Investor Trends Survey for 2011

    0 10 20 30 40

    34

    31

    15

    3

    24

    17

    16

    4

    14

    33

    20

    7

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 33

    Are there any rays of sunshine in this gloomy picture?

    • The contrarian bet: scarce capitaldrives higher returns. Even after the dramatic fall from the heights of vintage year 2000 fundraising, there remained too much capital in the sector and too many marginal fund managers. As other limited partners leave the sector and fundraising is rationalized at a lower level, contrarian investors are betting that overall returns will begin to rebound.

    • TheNextNewThing: SocialMedia. In the 1980s, personal computers were the “Next New Thing,” a title that was passed to the Internet in the 1990s. These were not simply products, but galvanizing concepts. As a result, a large number of successful companies were built developing and servicing these sectors. Over the past decade, nanotechnology and clean technology were touted as transformative concepts that had the opportunity to drive the sector, but neither has yet led to mammoth returns. Over the last couple of years, however, social media has come to the fore, and secondary market valuations of Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Groupon have begun to rivet investor interest.

    There are caveats to these rays of sunshine. Along with the concept of scarce capital comes the issue of what a sustainable level of fundraising might be in the venture capital

    sector — and whether the sector is scalable enough to be an “investment class” or a perennial niche sector. As far as social media is concerned, the trials of MySpace, one of the early leaders in the space, demonstrate that not every company in the sector is guaranteed long-term success. It calls into question how many large companies the sector can support and, given current capital efficiency, how much investment capital the sector can absorb in developing companies.

    The social media revolution has also focused attention on secondary markets in private equity. None of these companies are publicly traded, and it is uncertain as to whether all of them desire it in the future. A secondary market for shares of these companies has sprung up, enabling certain stock holders to gain liquidity and allowing other parties to gain access to the companies allowing them to claim that they, too, own a piece. These transactions, or course, do not show up in the usual IPO or M&A statistics. The prices of small lot purchases recently quoted in the market certainly do not represent a clearing price for large amounts of stock and seem to be driven more by “eyeballs on the screen” analysis as opposed to company profitability reports — a scenario seen at the height of the Internet Bubble.

    The most recent secondary activity has attracted the attention of the SEC, which has begun an investigation into whether these companies need to be registered or the secondary activity regulated.

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.34

    At the Margin: The Search for New Opportunities

    Though inflation currently remains low in the developed markets, there is increasing uneasiness that inflation may increase as a result of the stimulus programs many governments implemented in response to the financial crisis, especially if these programs are continued too long. A number of investors are beginning to explore investment opportunities in sectors such as timber, commodities, mining, royalties and agricultural land to hedge against this potential increase and develop specific allocations for inflation-linked or inflation-hedged assets.

    Within the private equity world historically, there have been relatively few fund vehicles that specifically target these sectors. Timber has been the most active in the past, but has been an area that many institutional investors addressed through separate accounts, which are much more difficult to track, as opposed to multi-party funds. Just over $1.4 billion was raised for timber funds in 2010 by seven funds, while private equity fundraising for the other sectors was more scattered. Further, large-scale investment opportunities in developed markets remain elusive as

    most of the largest holders of timber stands (paper and forestry companies) migrated those assets off balance sheets over the past decade. Thus, gaining portfolios of scale remains difficult. Increasingly, opportunities in developing markets, especially in large scale plantation efforts or in harvesting vast holdings in markets like Brazil, are gaining attention — the constraint in many of these markets being the development of infrastructure.

    There has also been increased interest in infrastructure investing over the last five years, as detailed in Chart XXXII below, driven in part because many of the underlying contracts are structured to provide long-term inflation protection. Though a number of investors invest in the sector through specific infrastructure or inflation-linked allocations, others invest through private equity allocations. Core infrastructure assets are typically long-lived, and a number of investors are interested in the sector to better match the lives of their assets and liabilities while providing a current income component. It is notable that fundraising for this sector (which is dominated by funds focused on the developed markets) rebounded significantly in 2010, while other areas of private equity remained flat.

    Chart XXXII Global Infrastructure Fundraising

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas PartnersNote: Does not include infrastructure funds-of-funds

    2.4

    39.7

    17.9

    5.2

    24.7

    19.0

    10.7

    40

    Num

    ber

    of F

    unds

    with

    Fin

    al C

    lose

    s

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Number of Final ClosesGlobal Infrastructure Fundraising

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 35

    Energy funds are another sector of renewed interest, especially in light of the turmoil in North Africa and the Middle East and the probability that Japan will likely need to increase imports of liquid natural gas. Chart XXXIII tracks fundraising for the three major types of energy-focused funds, defined below, over the last eight years:

    • Private Equity Vehicles: Funds pursuing buyout or growth capital strategies, buying either midstream or upstream assets in the energy sector. Most of these funds are focused on generating returns through capital gains, and very few are focused on exploration and production.

    • Cleantech/GreenEnergyFunds: Venture capital or growth funds focused on clean technology or renewable energy, most often investing in young companies without a history of profitability or revenue. Again, these funds are focused on capital gains and have the highest risk/return profile.

    • Energy Infrastructure Funds: A subset of infrastructure funds, these funds most often look to buy established, cash-flowing assets (such as natural gas distribution lines or wind farms) or take

    on some small development risk but only with established technology. These funds have a lower risk/return profile than the other two, and their returns often have a strong current income focus.

    As a niche sector that includes a few very large funds (First Reserve XII, the largest energy fund, raised $8.8 billion), energy annual fundraising totals can swing not only based upon shifts in commodity prices and investor interest but also whether or not one of the major established players is in the market in any particular year. The very different risk/return profiles of these funds also mean that investors are selective — an investor with an allocation to energy infrastructure funds may not have an allocation to cleantech funds and vice versa.

    Dramatic swings in energy prices also affect these funds in different ways. A steep increase in the price of oil, for example, might increase the value of the current holdings of a private equity fund while making it more difficult to make new investments at reasonable prices. Sustained higher oil prices could make cleantech investments, meant as oil substitutes, more attractive — but higher oil prices driven by political considerations could rapidly reverse and eliminate that advantage.

    Chart XXXIII Capital Raised for Energy-Focused Funds

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas Partners

    1.1

    5.7

    8.5

    25.4

    18.8

    21.8

    10.913.0

    Private Equity InfrastructureCleantech

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.36

    One last sector worth discussion is mezzanine and credit-focused funds. Mezzanine funds, that invest in subordinated debt, often with equity warrants attached, have been a long time feature of the private equity market, as seen in Chart XXXIV. These funds, however, have always been a niche sector considered by some investors to be a fixed income investment and not a true private equity opportunity. Fundraising for the sector, like the energy sector, can be dramatically impacted by large fund closings in any particular year. For example, GS Mezzanine Partners V, a $13 billion fund, which closed in 2008, had substantial effect on the final total for that year, the highest on record.

    Though mezzanine funds have been a feature of the market for a long time,

    since the financial crisis there have been a number of credit-focused funds launched whose fundraising totals are included in the totals below. These funds generally focus on senior instead of subordinated debt, and at least earlier in the crisis, also purchased performing debt in the secondary market. Many of these vehicles are levered at the fund level to enhance returns, something rarely done with mezzanine funds. At the larger end of the debt market, though the resurgence of high-yield bonds has provided competition for both mezzanine and credit funds, middle-market bank loans have not yet rebounded, leaving more scope for these vehicles to generate strong returns.

    Chart XXXIV Global Mezzanine Fundraising

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas Partners

    0.9 1.3

    9.6

    4.65.5

    2.6

    11.1

    7.5

    16.7 17.0

    27.6

    7.9 8.06.15.24.7

    3.0

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 37

    Secondary Market: Back on Track

    Fundraising for secondary funds hit an all-time high in 2009 on the back of investor anticipation of a strong market for secondaries caused by the financial crisis. As Charts XXXV and XXXVI make clear, however, transaction volume fell in 2009, as the steep discounts to NAV that were triggered by

    the financial crisis led potential sellers to hold back from selling due to sticker shock. As we moved through 2010 and discounts decreased, secondary specialists began to concentrate on investing rather than fundraising. While the amount of capital raised for the sector dramatically decreased during the year, secondary activity soared, setting a new record.

    Chart XXXV Secondary Pricing for Buyout and Venture over the Current

    Perc

    enta

    ge o

    f Net

    Ass

    et V

    alue

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    02007 1H’08 2H’08 Q3’09 Q4’09 Q1’10 Q2’10 Q3’10 Q4’10

    Source: Probitas Partners, Capital IQ

    Buyout Venture

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.38

    Although not included in Chart XXXVI, there is substantial additional capital targeting secondaries beyond what has been raised by secondary specialists. Probitas Partners estimates that secondary specialists currently have $20 billion to $25 billion in dry powder, while an equal amount of dry powder is available in the secondary allocations of primary funds-of-funds and targeted programs of certain large limited partners.

    As far as deal flow is concerned, the market has continued to be strong in 2011. Secondary changes in banking regulations in the U.S. and in insurance company regulation in Europe have increased deal flow while these institutions seek to adapt. At the same time, a number of institutions, such as pension plans and endowments, are still finding

    themselves over-allocated to private equity or have the need to rebalance their portfolio exposures and are turning to the secondary market to address these issues. In addition, a number of fund managers sponsored by financial institutions are looking to spinout and become independent, often through recapitalizations or stapled secondaries.

    As investors and fund managers continue to utilize the secondary market to work out some of those issues, secondary specialists will continue to raise funds to take advantage of these investment opportunities. Currently, there are twenty-five secondary funds in the market looking to raise nearly $20 billion in new commitments. Some well-known secondary specialists currently in the market include Coller, Lexington, and AXA.

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish. 39

    Chart XXXVI Secondary Market Transaction Volume and Capital Raised by Secondary Fund Specialists

    USD

    in b

    illio

    ns

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Source: Probitas Partners

    Capital Raised Transaction Volume

    0.8 0.42.6 2.2

    4.53.54.1

    5.6 6.1

    15.1

    7.4

    22.3

    6.96.4

    2.1

  • Confidential & Trade Secret. © 2011 Probitas Partners. Do not circulate or publish.40

    F o r e c a s t f o r 2 0 1 1Private equity fundraising in the developed economies will continue to be sluggish

    • The overhang of outstanding unfunded commitments remains a drag on many investors’ allocations and many investors will continue to triage current relationships

    • The market will remain extremely competitive with a large number of fund managers who delayed fundraising in 2009 and 2010 coming to market in 2011

    Many investors will focus on the growing economics of the emerging markets

    • Fundraising for Asia and Latin America rebounded significantly in 2010 and is on track to continue strong in 2011

    • The MIST countries (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey) are likely to be the next group of emerging market targets after the BRICs

    Limited partners, focused on middle-market buyouts, will grow increasingly concerned that purchase price multiples are rebounding more quickly than hoped

    • Average buyout purchase price multiples in the U.S. and Europe are already back to 2006 levels, increasing much more quickly than in past economic cycles

    Strains in the high-yield bond market will make it more difficult to refinance transactions or execute dividend recaps

    • At this point it is difficult to know whether the early signs of stress are more related to the current turmoil in MENA and Japan or whether it will have longer-term implications over the year

    • Though the high-yield market appears to be slowing, the record amounts already raised in late 2009 and throughout 2010 have already pushed out the wall of debt that many buyout portfolio companies were facing, limiting damage to buyout portfolios while reducing opportunities for distressed debt funds

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    The venture market will continue to suffer from significant long-term problems but secondary market valuations of social media companies will offer hope for the “Next New Thing”

    • Median ten-year horizon returns for venture capital are now negative and will create fundamental issues for venture capitalists and an increasing number of “zombie” funds raised at the last venture market peak of 2000

    • Certain limited partners will take heart at huge secondary market valuations of social media investments such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Groupon and continue to invest in venture as contrarians

    Wild cards for the year: energy prices and Japan

    • Political turmoil in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 has resulted in a steep rise in oil prices; further turmoil in key Gulf states could result in more significant rises with dramatic knock-on economic effects

    • Besides the immediate death and destruction, the impacts of the earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear incident in Japan will continue to develop into more serious issues for Japan and its trading partners

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