# pricing the ipod. ipod demand and revenue table

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• Pricing the iPod

• iPod Demand and Revenue Table

• iPod Demand and Marginal Revenue curves

• iPod Demand and Marginal Revenue curves

• iPod Price and Profits with Marginal Cost of \$100

• Marginal cost of \$100

• iPod Price and Profits with Marginal Cost of \$50

• iPod Price and Profits with Marginal Cost of \$25

• What do they really cost?4 GB Nano is \$149

8 GB Nano is \$199

• Why doesnt Apple charge more?Our class estimates suggest that with MC of \$25-\$50, Apple would maximize profits by charging \$250. Is there a reason for Apple to want bigger volume of iPod sales?Hint: What about selling music downloads?

• If demand for a monopolists product is inelastic at the current price, he could increase his profits by reducing output, even if his marginal cost is very small.TrueFalse

• Why is that?If demand is inelastic, then a small price increase and the resulting quantity decrease must increase revenue. So by cutting back quantity he increases revenue. Reducing quantity certainly wont increase his costs, so his profit must increase.

• A monopolist faces a demand curve with equation P=100-Q. What is the equation for its marginal revenue?MR=200-QMR=100-QMR=100-2QMR=200-2QMR=100-Q2

• With linear demand, MR is a straight line with same intercept, twice as steep as demand. If demand equation is P=100-Q, Marginal revenue is MR=100-2q

10010050Green Line Demand Curve 100-QPink Line MR curve,100-2Q

• A monopolist faces a demand curve with equation P=100-Q. Its total costs are \$10Q. What are its marginal costs? \$10 for all quantities\$10+Q\$(100/Q)-1 \$100-2Q\$100-Q

• Marginal cost is the extra cost of producing one more unit if output is Q. Therefore marginal cost is \$10(Q+1)-\$10Q=\$10.

Calculus answer:Marginal cost is derivative of \$10Q with respect to Q, which is \$10.

• A monopolist faces a demand curve with equation P=100-Q. Its total costs are \$10Q. How much should it produce to maximize its profits?Q=100Q=50Q=45 Q=30Q=25

• How do we find that?

To maximize profits, the monopolist sets marginal revenue equal to marginal cost. The equation is 100-2Q=10. The solution is Q=45.

• A monopolist faces a demand curve with equation P=100-Q. Its total costs are \$10Q. What price should it charge to maximize profits?P=60P=55P=50 P=45P=40

• How do we find that?

We found that the profit maximizing quantity is Q=45.Since the demand curve is P=100-Q, it must be that the price is 100-45=55 when profits are maximized.

• Diagram for profit maximizing monopoly

10010050Green Demand Curve 100-QPink MR curve,100-2Q55Blue Marginal Cost Curve 45

• A monopolist faces a demand curve with equation P=100-Q. Its total costs are \$10Q. How much profits can it make?\$ 2025\$200\$1800\$600\$950

• Diagram for profit maximizing monopolyMaximum profit is \$45x45=\$2025.

100100 Green Demand Curve 100-QPink MR curve,100-2Q55Blue Marginal Cost Curve Profit4510

• And On to our Lecture