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  1. 1. Image Use, Self-Esteem, BMI and the Perceived Importance of Weight and Appearance on Womens Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery. Lindsey Worby Abnormal and Clinical Psychology/ 2014
  2. 2. This study aims to investigate how different factors influence individuals acceptance of cosmetic surgery. More specifically, I want to investigate what and how factors make an individual more accepting of cosmetic surgery. Introduction Aims
  3. 3. Not much known on that factors that influence individuals acceptance of cosmetic surgery. I have identified some factors that could possibly have an effect on our acceptance of cosmetic surgery: - Viewing images of different body sizes - The value we place on our weight and appearance - Body Mass Index (BMI) - Self-Esteem The more accepting an individual is of cosmetic surgery, the more likely the individual will undergo cosmetic surgery. Introduction Why investigate this?
  4. 4. No research on how viewing images of different body sizes influences our acceptance of cosmetic surgery. - However, research has shown that viewing images of thin body sizes increases our body dissatisfaction (Krahe & Krause, 2010). -However, body dissatisfaction hasnt been linked to cosmetic surgery. No research on how the value we place on our weight and appearance effects our acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Little research on how BMI effects our acceptance of cosmetic surgery. - Having a low BMI increases our acceptance of cosmetic surgery (Swami, 2009). - No research on how high BMI affects our acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Research on the effects of self-esteem on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery; However, it is useful to include in the study as a supporting variable, in order to see how this factor interacts with the other factors in the study. - Research has shown that low self-esteem increases an individuals acceptance of cosmetic surgery (Mirza, Davis & Yanovski, 2005). The acceptance of cosmetic surgery is a predictor of actually undergoing cosmetic surgery (Soest, Kvalem, Skolleborg & Roald, 2006). Introduction Previous research
  5. 5. Hypotheses H1: Participants who viewed the images of the thin female models (Clothe size 6) will be more accepting of cosmetic surgery, than the participants who viewed the images of the healthy female models (Clothe size 12). H2: Participants with low self-esteem will show higher acceptance rates for cosmetic surgery than participants with normal/high rates of self-esteem. H3: Participants who placed a high level of importance on their weight and appearance will show higher acceptance rates of cosmetic surgery than those with normal/low levels. H4: Participants who have a BMI higher or lower than their recommended will show higher acceptance rates for cosmetic surgery, compared to participants with their recommended BMI.
  6. 6. Materials and method Participants and design Participants - Expected number- Minimum of 100. - who can participate? - Female undergraduate psychology students. - Need to study at Anglia Ruskin University. - Between 18-30 years old. - NEVER have undergone cosmetic surgery. -Recruitment- By opportunity sampling by the Sona system. - Participants will be rewarded with 0.5 credits. Design - Independent groups design. - Dependent variable- The acceptance of cosmetic surgery. - Independent variables- Body size images viewed- (Thin and healthy models). -Self- Esteem (High, Medium & Low). - Value placed on weight and appearance (High, medium & Low). - Body Mass Index- (Recommended BMI, Over/under recommended).
  7. 7. Materials and method Procedure Each participant will be randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: - Condition A- Have to view 15 images of normal weight female models (UK clothe size 12). - Condition B- Have to view 15 images of thin female models (UK clothe size 6). Participants will then be required to complete three questionnaires: - Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). - The Importance of Weight and Appearance Measure (Pilner, Chaiken & Flett, 1990). - The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (Henderson-King & Henderson- King, 2005). Body Mass Index (BMI) - Height (ft/in) - Weight (st/lbs)
  8. 8. Materials and method Examples of stimuli Examples of thin female models (UK clothe size 6). Examples of normal size female models (UK clothe size 12) Having an attractive body that others admire
  9. 9. Data will be analysed using multiple regression. Healthy Thin Body size images viewed Low Medium High Low Medium High Important placed on weight and appearance Under Recom Over Recom BMI recom BMI BMI Body mass index (BMI) Acceptanceofcosmeticsurgery AOCS AOCS AOCS Self-Esteem Predicted Results based on my hypotheses. Analysis
  10. 10. Not many other methods for testing the research question -Some of the variables can only be measured by questionnaires. -Could possibly interview participants on the variables instead of using questionnaires, however this method has many limitations. -Instead of making the participants view images of female models of different body sizes, I could get them to view videos of models of different body sizes instead, however again, this also poses limitations. Critical Evaluation Are there any other methods you could use to answer your research question?
  11. 11. If these factors are found to have an effect on your acceptance of cosmetic surgery, how long will these effects last? - Levels of self-esteem, BMI and the importance you place on your weight and appearance can change in day to day life, would this have an effect on how accepting an individual is of cosmetic surgery? - Further research would need to be done in order to determine whether these factors have any long term effects on individuals acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Problems with using questionnaires - Participants may not answer truthfully as this can be considered a sensitive topics to individuals who are sensitive about their weight and appearance. Participants may rush through the online study. - Counteract by explaining the importance that the participants take their time over the study. Participants may not view the images - Counteract by stating the importance of the study and that it is a necessity that participant view the images. Critical Evaluation Are there any possible problems with executing your research?
  12. 12. Henderson-King, D., & Henderson- King, E. (2005). Acceptance of cosmetic surgery: Scale development and validation. Body Image, 2(2), 137-149. Krahe, B., & Krause, C. (2010). Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Womens Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(4), 349-355. Mirza, N. M., Davis, D., & Yanovski, J. A. (2005). Body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and overweight among inner-city Hispanic children and adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36(3), 267.ep16- 267.e20. Pliner, P., Chaiken, S., & Flett, G. L. (1990). Gender Differences in Concern with Body Weight and Physical Appearance Over the Lifespan. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16(2), 263-273. doi: 10.1177/0146167290162007. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Soest, V. T., Kvalem, I. L., Skolleborg, K. C., & Roald, H. E. (2006). Psychosocial Factors Predicting the Motivation to Undergo Cosmetic Surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 117(1), 51-62. Swami, V. (2009). Body Appreciation, Media Influence, and Weight Status Predict Consideration of Cosmetic Surgery Among Female Undergraduates. Body Image, 6(4), 315-317. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.07.001. References