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English For Specific Purpose

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  • DefinitionThe only practical way in which we can understand the notion of special language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a well-defined context, task or vocation (p. 4).On the other hand, a specialized aim refers to the purpose for which learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn (Mackay & Mountford, 1978). Consequently, the focus of the word 'special' in ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn.

    Robinson (1980) has defined it as the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes.According to Strevens (1988) definition of ESP makes adistinction between four absolute characteristic and two variable characteristic of english language teaching.

    Absolute characteristic of ESP : Designed to meet specified needs of the learners ;Related in content (that is in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupation and activities;Centered on language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics and so on, and analysis of the discoruse;In contrast with General English.

  • May be resticted as to the learning skills to be learned ( for example reading only);May not be taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.ESP is likely to be designed for adult learnes, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situationhowever, it could be used at scondary school level.ESP is a geerally designed for intermediate or advance students.

  • ESP is traditionally been divided into to main areas according to when they take place:English for Academic Purposes (EAP) involving pre experience, simultaneous/in-service and post-experience courses, and 2) English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) for study in a specific discipline (pre-study, in-study, and post-study) or as a school subject (independent or integrated)

  • Clasification of ESP English For Specific Purpose

    English for Academic Purpose English for Academic Purpose

    For student in a As school Pre-experiencespecific disciplinessubjectSimultaneous/In-service

    Post-experience Pre-study Independentin-sudyPost-studyIntergrated

  • authentic material, purpose-related orientation, and self-direction.ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, use of authentic learning materials is entirely feasible. Closer examination of ESP materials will follow; suffice it to say at this juncture that use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified in form, are indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research tasks. Whileas Purpose-related orientation refers to the simulation of communicative tasks required of the target setting. Carter (1983) cites student simulation of a conference, involving the preparation of papers, reading, note taking, and writing. Finally, self-direction is characteristic of ESP courses in that the " point of including self-direction is that ESP is concerned with turning learners into users" (Carter, 1983, p. 134). In order for self-direction to occur, the learners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when, what, and how they will study.

  • Specificity And Motivation

    Strevens (1988) summarises the advantage of ESP :Being focus on the learners need, it wastes no time;It is relevant to the learners;It is succesful in imparting learning;It is more cost-effective than general english.The implication of these claims is that ESP teaching is more motivating for learners than general english. Generally speaking, this is true its focus nature of the teaching, its relevance and cost-effectiveness ensure that its aims are widely accepted by learners.

  • The notion of carrier content and real content are essential to the understanding of ESP work and to an understanding of motivation in ESP. In ESP, any teaching activity, whether its aim is to teach language or skills, is presented in a context. It makes use of the context of the ife cycle of plant in order to present this language. The life cycle of a plant is the carrier content used to teach the specific language.

  • Roles of the ESP practitioner

    The ESP practitioner as teacher ESP is practical disciplines with the main focus on helping students to learn. ESP teaching the teacher provides the opportunity to draw on students knowledge of the content in order to generate genuine ommunication in the classroom.The ESP practitioner as course designer and materials provider The role of ESP teacher as providers of material thus involves choosing suitable published material, adapting material. ESP teacher also need to assess the effectiveness of the teaching material used on the course, what that material is published or self-produced. The role of course designer and materials provider described here may seem a difficult and demanding role to some one new to ESP..

  • ESP teacher need to be aware of and in touch with this reserach. Those carrying out a needs analysis, designing a course, or writing teaching materials need to be able to incorporate the finding of the research, and those working in specific ESP situaion need to be confident that they know what is involve in skills such as written communication.The ESP practitioner as collaboratorThe fullest collaboration is where a subject expert and language teacher team-teach classes; in EAP such lessons mignt help with the understanding of subject lectures or the writing of examination answer, eassays or theses

  • The ESP practitioner as evaluatorThe ESP teacher should be evaluating course design and teaching materials including both the testing of students and the evauation of courses and teaching materials. The ESP teacher also needs to be able to devise achievemet test to assess how much learners have gained from a course. Evaluation through dscussion and on going needs analysis can thus be used to adapt the syllabus.

  • ESP as a multi-disciplinary activityThere are two aspects of multi-disciplarity :The need and willingness to engage with other disciplines through teaching, andThe need and willingness to draw on the insights of researchers in other disciplines.

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