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POULTRY BASIC ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (DBBM 102)
PRACTICAL GUIDE / RECORD
DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY MANAGEMENTSUGUNA INSTITUTE OF POULTRY MANAGEMENT
NAME :YEAR :BATCH :
ID NUMBER :
Certified that this is the bonafide record of work done by Thiru _____________________________________
Submitted for the practical examination held on___________
at the Department of Poultry Management, Suguna Institute of Poultry Management, Udumalpet.
Senior Faculty (HOD)
DBBM-102 POULTRY BASIC ANATOMY& PHYSIOLOGY
Ex.NO Date TITLEPage No.
Date of Submis-
1 Comb Patterns
2 Feather Patterns &Tracks
3 Chicken Skeletal System and Res-piratory System
4 Chicken Digestive System and En-zymes Production in digestion
5 Commercial Broiler farm visit-1
6 Commercial Broiler farm visit-2
7 Thermoregulatory Mechanism
8 Chicken reproductive System(Male & Female)
9 Identification And Marking Of Chicken Endocrine Organs and its Functions
10 Chicken Circulatory System and Excretory System
11 Breeder farm visit-1
12 Breeder farm visit-2
13 Drawing of Egg Structure Egg Quality Measurement (Internal &External)
14 Feed mill visit
1. Neatness and cleanliness of the individual, his environment, work table
and appliances is essential.
2. Record every stage of experiment in the observation notebook with date,
exercise number and time.
3. Check for the cleanliness of the glass wares and identify chemicals before
use. Replace them in their original place immediately after use. Glass
wares must be rinsed well in distilled water before and after use. Pipettes
and burettes must be rinsed with the solution to be used.
4. Be attentive, bear in mind that any slight error is likely to spoil the result.
5. At the end of the experiment get your work attested by the staff. Clarify
the doubts on the spot without postponing.
6. The record should be written neatly without any omission. Draw diagrams
7. Submit the record on due date.
8. The instructions written by the staff after correction, should be carried out
before you resubmit the record. Any defects pointed out should be recti-
9. Attend all practical tests. Do not neglect revision practicals.
Comb patterns help in identifying the various breeds and varieties of chicken. The common comb pattern noticed in chicken is the single comb. This comb is very prominent in the breed known as White Leghorn. A typical comb namely has a base, blade serrations, points and spikes.
The comb is an indicator of the reproductive ability of the bird as the growth of the comb is controlled by oestrogen and androgen harmones of the bird. An experienced farm hand will distinguish a healthy bird from an unhealthy bird by seeing the comb alone. The comb should be brick red in
colour and erect (expect in white Leghorn females where it lops on anyone side) it should be prominent, rigid, velvety, soft, warm and waxy to touch. Unhealthy birds or a poor layer will have a dry, shrunken, pale, cold comb, with chalky deposits over the surface. Some of the diseases can be identified by the colour and condition of the comb.
The varieties of comb are:1. Single comb2. Rose comb3. Pea comb4. Strawberry comb or Walnut comb5. Cushion comb6. Cap comb7. Cup comb
1. Single comb:This is a comb when viewed from the front is narrow and has spikes
in line, one behind other. It consists of a blade which is the lower solid portion. The space between the spikes are known as serrations. The serrations and spikes are definite in size and shape in different breeds. The White leghorn has five or six spikes. The Rhode Island Red has six spikes. The number of spikes on the comb depends on the action of the modifying genes.
(e.g) White Leghorn, White Rock.
2. Rose comb:
This comb is nearly flat on the top and is covered with small irregular points finished with spikes. It varies and the length of carriage varies according to the breed. The modifying genes determine the size and number of rounded points on the comb as well as the length and direction of the spikes. The Rose comb is dominant over the single comb.
(e.g) Rose combed Leghorn, Wyandotte.
3. Pea comb:
This is a comb resembling three very small single combs joined together at the base and rear. The pea comb is governed by a dominant gene.
(e.g) White Cornish, Dark Cornish
4. Walnut comb:
This comb resembles one half of a strawberry fruit or a walnut with the round part uppermost. It is small in size and has irregular grooves on the surface. When a rose comb and pea comb breed is crossed, the progeny will be walnut combed.
(e.g) Malay, Kvaienkoppe
5. Cushion comb:
This comb is basically noticed in the silkie breed.
6. Cap comb or V-shaped comb:
This comb will be in the form of a stylish cap this is seen in red cap breeds.
7. Cup comb:
This comb is cupped between two single combs stretched further apart and fused at the base. This is seen in butter cup breeds.
(e.g) Butter cup, Poland
Feather serves as a protection to the bird from extremes of weather by insulating the body. They are essential for flight. The Feather Pattern and colour will assist in identifying the breed and variety and also help in identifying, the sex of the bird, because sexual dimorphism exists in the feather pattern of chicken.
In the male fowl the tail feathers are sickle shaped, called sickle feather. In case of ducks the male has a curved tail feather (sex curl) known as the Drake Feather, which is useful in identifying the sex of the bird. In the Tom turkey the tail feather is long when compared to that of the female. In the Japanese quail he feathers on the neck and breast region of the male is golden or rust brown, while in the female it is specked. Feathers also help in identifying a
good layer from a non-layer, an old layer from a young layer and also to identify the stage of moult in a bird.
Feather colour-light and darkened shades of colour etc. play a very important role in identifying breeds.
The root is called as calamus. The base is called as the quill, which gives rise to a structure known as a shaft in turn terminates in a structure called rachis.
The structure called barbs arise from the shaft rise to the barbule. This further gives rise to barbicels. These join together to form the vane.
The various types of feathers are as follows:
1. Contour feather: This forms the general covering of the body and wings including
the large flight feather of the wings.
2. Convert feather: These are noticed on the base of the wings and do not have
barbicels: also called as fluff.
3. Down feather: This is present in newly hatched chicks. Sometimes it is seen below
the contour feathers especially in the abdominal and head regions.
4. Filo plume:Hair like structures under the contour feathers of the body, which
can be seen when the feathers are plucked. It consists of an axis and very few terminal barbs.
Even though the body of the bird looks fully covered with feathers, it has originated only from certain definite feather tracts called pterylae. There are 10 pairs of feather tracts.
1. Cephalic 6. Ventral 2. Alar 7. Femoral3. Humoral 8. Cervical4. Spinal 9. Auxiliary5. Crural 10. CaudalDuring the moulting process the feathers are shed in a particular pattern
starting from the cephalic tract and finally ending with the crural tract.
CHICKEN SKELETAL SYSTEM
The chickens beak is composed of hard keratinized epidermal tissue. This rostral structure forms part of the upper and lower jaws. Some bones of the avian species are considered pneumatic as a result of diver-ticula from the air sacs. These air sac diverticula result in a direct connection between the respiratory system and the skeletal system of avians. The vertebral column is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coc-cygeal areas:
1. The cervical vertebrae are the neck bones. 2. The thoracic vertebrae are those in the thoracic, or chest, area. 3. The lumbar vertebrae are those in the abdominal area. 4. The sacral vertebrae are those in the pelvic area. 5. The coccygeal vertebrae are those in the tail area.
The bones of the pectoral girdle are the clavicle, coracoid, and scapula: 1. The clavicle, also called the wishbone, pulley bone, or furculum, lies at
the base of the neck. It is a fused bone. The intraclavicular air sacs are located between the two branches of the clavicle.
2. The coracoid bones lie on either side of the ribcage, and attach the shoulders to the breast bone. They lie just caudal to the clavicle, and are thick bones when compared to the clavicle.
3. The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a long thin bone which runs along the top of each side of the ribcage.
The bones of the wing are the humerus, radius, ulna, and wingtip: 1. The humerus is the upper wing bone. 2. The radius is the small straight lower wing bone. 3. The wingtip bone is the bone at the very end of the wing.