Pontian Genocide

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<ul><li><p>(9/06) </p><p>The Pontian Greek Genocide: a teaching unit </p></li><li><p>(9/06) </p><p>THE PONTIAN GREEK GENOCIDE: A TEACHING UNIT is published by the </p><p>Pontian Society of Chicago Xeniteas. 2006 Pontian Society of Chicago </p><p>Xeniteas. All rights reserved. This work is protected by federal copyright </p><p>laws. No part of this work may be copied, adapted, distributed, or displayed </p><p>without the express written consent of the Publisher. You may share this </p><p>document freely in its entirety, including contact and copyright information. </p><p>The Pontian Society of Chicago Xeniteas </p><p>Phone (630) 894-2688 </p><p>www.xeniteas.net</p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 3 </p><p>This book is dedicated to victims of all genocides. </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 4 </p><p>Credits &amp; Acknowledgements Author Ronald Levitsky teaches social studies at Sunset Ridge School in Northfield, Illinois. He is a recipient of the Kohl Award for Excellence in Teaching, the 2005 Edward Lewis II Teacher of the Year Award from the Constitutional Rights Foundation of Chicago, and the 2006 Aharonian Award from the Genocide Education Project. Mr. Levitsky serves on the executive committee of the National Social Studies Supervisors Association. The publisher is grateful to Theofanis Malkidis, Ph.D. for his review of this unit. Dr. Malkidis is a professor in the Department of Language, Literature, and Culture of the Black Sea Countries, Demokritus University of Thrace, Greece. George Mavropoulos, Savvas Koktzoglou, and Thomas Mantzakides assisted in gathering material and resources, verified sources, prepared revisions, and provided comments for this unit. As members of the Pontian Society of Chicago Xeniteas, their work preserves an historical and cultural heritage for a new generation while honoring the memory of their Pontian ancestors. Artist Efi Mavridis created the painting appearing on the cover. Her inspiration was the stories her grandparents, themselves survivors of the Pontian Genocide, told her when she was a child. Cover art by Efi MavridisKozani, Greece. Edited and typeset by Domenico I. De Bellis. </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 5 </p><p>Contents </p><p>Note to Teacher and Suggested Lesson Plans... 6 </p><p>Maps . 10 </p><p>Chronology of Major Events ... 11 </p><p>Genocide of the Pontian Greeks . 12 </p><p>Vocabulary List .... 20 </p><p>Worksheet: Genocide of the Pontian Greeks.. 21 </p><p>Historical Documents ... 24 </p><p>Worksheet: Historical Documents .. 29 </p><p>Lesson: Why Was What Happened to the Pontian Greeks Genocide?.. 31 </p><p>Lesson: The Destruction of Smyrna .... 33 </p><p>Lesson: A Memorial to the Pontian Greek Genocide 37 </p><p>Supplemental Lesson: Ibrahims Soul ... 38 </p><p>Works Cited ........ 43 </p><p>Additional Sources ....... 44</p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 6 </p><p>Note to Teacher </p><p>The Armenians are not the only subject people in Turkey which have suffered from this policy of making Turkey exclusively the country of the Turks. The story, which I have told about the Armenians, I could also tell with certain modifications about the Greeks and Syrians [Assyrians]. Indeed, the Greeks were the first victims of this nationalizing idea . . . </p><p>From The Murder of a Nation, by Henry Morgenthau, American Ambassador to Turkey, 19131916 </p><p> The horrors of the Holocaust have largely obscured the first genocide of the 20th Century, which was committed by Turkey against its Christian minorities. While the Armenian experience, often called the Forgotten Genocide, is gaining wider recognition, few today know what happened to the Greeks of the Pontus region, also known as Pontian Greeks, and the Assyrians, who together may have lost over one million people. They were murdered by different methods and many more were driven into exile. The need to understand the nature of genocide grows ever stronger, as evidenced by what has happened in Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and now Darfur. In addition, genocide denial, which Elie Wiesel has called the final stage of genocide, is today being used by the nation of Turkey, which has yet to recognize the crimes committed against its Christian minorities in the years before, during, and after World War I. This unit deals with the Pontian Greeks, whose ancestors had settled along the southeastern coast of the Black Sea as early as the 8th B.C. Later, like the Armenians and Assyrians, they created a long and vibrant culture as a Christian minority in a Muslim world. During this genocide, Greeks in other parts of the Ottoman Empiresuch as Cappadocia, Constantinople (Istanbul), and Smyrnawere also victims of Turkish atrocities. Placement of these lessons within the curriculum is, of course, based on the subject being taught. In a World History class, the lessons fit chronologically with the study of World War I. They also fit with a U.S. History classs study of World War I, since Americans were leaders in relief efforts to help Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian Greeks (see Historical Documents 6 and 8). A psychology or sociology teacher would find this material useful, as students attempt to understand the nature of genocide. Of course, with the current crisis in Darfur, this material would help students understand current events. In addition, these lessons offer a comparative study to the Holocaust. By examining the genocide of the Pontian Greeks with that of the Jews, students can gain a better understanding of what was distinctive about each. However, they can also look for patterns common to both. For example, like the Nazis, the Turks did not begin mass murders immediately; it was a gradual process (as is reflected in the Historical Documents). And both the Turkish </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 7 </p><p>government and the Nazis tried to hide their crimes from international organizations such as the Red Cross (see Historical Document 9). The following material is offered as a five-day unit. Even so, this is merely a general introduction to the Pontian Greek Genocide. Because many teachers are subject to severe time constraints, a one-day mini-lesson is also offered. Of course, the lessons are only suggestionsGood teachers will take this material and make it their own. The five-day unit incorporates the following pedagogical strategies: Analysis of primary sources, including official reports, newspaper accounts, and survivor narratives; teachers of advanced placement history courses may wish to use these documents for their own data-based questions Multiple Intelligences, including verbal-linguistic (e.g. worksheets, journaling, poetry, and essay), spatial (art projects), interpersonal (cooperative learning activities), and intrapersonal (individual reflection) Writing, including expressive (journaling and poetry) and persuasive essay Questioning, including answering both convergent and divergent questions Higher order thinking (Blooms Taxonomy), including analysis and evaluation </p><p>5-Day Lesson Plan Before Day 1, as homework, students should have completed the background reading, Genocide of the Pontian Greeks, and the accompanying worksheet. Day 1 1. Review and discuss the background reading, referring to the worksheet. </p><p>The teacher may wish to collect the homework. 2. As homework, students should read that part of the packet labeled </p><p>Historical Documents and complete the accompanying worksheet. Day 2 1. Briefly discuss the homework, Historical Documents. 2. Divide the class into small groups (34 persons per group). Each group </p><p>should complete the activity, Why Was What Happened to the Pontian Greeks a Genocide? </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 8 </p><p>3. Each group should share its findings with the class as a whole. The teacher may wish to collect the group findings. </p><p> Day 3 1. Review together what happened to Smyrna in 1922. 2. Read together the three documents referring to the destruction </p><p>of Smyrna. 3. Look at the accompanying photographs and discuss what happened. 4. Homework (begin in class)Each student is to write a poem regarding </p><p>what happened at Smyrna or one of the other events depicted in the Historical Documents. </p><p> Day 4 1. Before collecting the homework, allow students the opportunity </p><p>to share their poems with the class. 2. Divide students into small groups (45). Drawing upon their poetry, </p><p>as well as the readings from earlier in the unit, each group is to design its own memorial dedicated to the genocide of the Pontian Greeks. Students should follow the guidelines in the study guide, A Memorial to the Pontian Greek Genocide, adopted from a Facing History and Ourselves lesson and used in the Choices for the 21st Century unit, Confronting Genocide: Never Again? </p><p> 3. Give students the remainder of the period to work on the project. Day 5 1. Give students an opportunity to complete their memorial (about half </p><p>the period). 2. Before collecting the assignment, allow each group to share </p><p>its memorial. 3. Discuss as a class or assign as homework, the topic: </p><p>Why is it important to remember the Pontian Genocide? </p><p>Supplemental Lesson: Ibrahims Soul To study one persons response to genocide, the teacher may want to have his/her students do the supplemental lesson, Ibrahims Soul. This lesson offers many possibilities for discussion. For example, if one views genocide as the ultimate form of bullying, the bullys actions against the target/victim are, </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 9 </p><p>to a great extent, permitted by what bystanders fail to do. Why do many people collaborate with those who commit genocide, while others, like Ibrahim, do not? These others, often called the Righteous in Holocaust studies, or whom Samantha Powers, author of A Problem From Hell, calls Upstanders are relatively few in number but can be inspiring to students and offer a powerful affirmation of goodness in human nature. </p><p> 1-Day Lesson Plan </p><p> As homework before the lesson, students should have completed the background reading, Genocide of the Pontian Greeks, and the accompanying worksheet. 1. Ask the students: What was the Pontian Greek Genocide? (10 minutes) </p><p>a. Students should write their answers. b. Discuss their responses. </p><p> 2. Distribute the Historical Documents packet and the worksheet, </p><p>Why Was What Happened to the Pontian Greeks a Genocide? (25 minutes) </p><p> a. Working in small groups, students should find one example of each part </p><p>of the definition of genocide. b. Students should share their findings. </p><p> 3. Closurediscuss why it is important to remember the Pontian Greek </p><p>Genocide. (510 minutes) </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 10 </p><p>Maps </p><p> Figure 1. Map of Europe and Middle East </p><p> Figure 2. Map of Greece, Turkey and Armenia </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 11 </p><p>Chronology of Major Events </p><p>10th12th Century Ottoman Turks migrate from central Asia to Asia Minor </p><p>1204 Fourth Crusade; Crusaders sack Constantinople; Greek Empire of Trebizond established </p><p>1453 Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Empire </p><p>14581460 Turks occupy mainland Greece </p><p>1461 Fall of Trebizond to the Turks </p><p>18211828 Ottoman Empire defeated in Greek War of Independence; Greece is formed </p><p>189497 Hamidian Massacres of Armenians by the Turks </p><p>1908 Young Turks revolt, transforming the multicultural Ottoman Empire to a nationalistic Muslim state </p><p>19121913 First and Second Balkan Wars </p><p>19141919 World War I; first phase of Pontian Greek genocide; Assyrians also subjected to genocide </p><p>19151923 Armenian genocide by the Ottoman Empire </p><p>19141922 Pontian Greek fighters resist Turkish persecutions and massacres of Pontian Greeks </p><p>1918 Allies defeat the Ottoman Empire </p><p>1919 (May) Greek Army lands in Smyrna </p><p>19191922 Nationalist movement of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk); second phase of Pontian Greek genocide; attempts by Pontian Greeks to establish an independent state </p><p>1922 (AugustSeptember) Turkish Army defeats the Greek Army and destroys Smyrna </p><p>1923 Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey; Treaty of Lausanne </p><p>1924 Last survivors of Pontian Greek genocide leave Turkey </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 12 </p><p>Genocide of the Pontian Greeks What was the early history of the Pontian Greeks? Pontus, an ancient Greek word for sea, refers to the Black Sea and surrounding coastal areas. The presence of Greeks at the Black Sea dates back to early times. Research suggests that in the period around 1000 B.C., the first trading adventures in this area took place, searching mainly for gold and other minerals. The voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to Colchis, the adventures of Odysseus in the country of the Cimmerians, the punishment of Prometheus by Zeus on the Caucasus mountains, the voyage of Hercules to the Pontus, the land of Amazons, and other Greek myths related to this area testify to the existence of ancient Greek trading routes. </p><p> Figure 3. Hercules fighting the Amazons </p></li><li><p>T H E P O N T I A N S O C I E T Y O F C H I C A G O X E N I T E A S </p><p>(9/06) T H E P O N T I A N G R E E K G E N O C I D E 13 </p><p> Figure 4. Colonization of the Black Sea area by Greeks During the 8th Century B.C., Greeks from Miletos colonized this area, founding cities like Sinope, Amisos (Samsun), and Trapezus (Trebizond) and contributing great thinkers such as the philosopher Diogenes of Sinope and the geographer Strabo of Amasia. After Alexander the Greats death in 323 B.C., the city-states of the Pontus formed a kingdom under the Mithridates family that lasted until defeated by the Romans in 63 B.C. In 313 A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine granted Christians religious freedom. In 330 he renamed the Greek city of Byzantium Constantinople and made the city the new capital of the Christian Roman Empire. The emergence of Christianity as the official religion of Rome led to the creation of great monasteries that served as centers of Christian and Hellenic (Greek) learning. A number of saints, patriarchs, and bishops of the Orthodox Church were from the Pontus. As part of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire, or Byzantium), the Pontus was a busy trading center, with the Black Sea as well...</p></li></ul>