politeness and impoliteness in persian-speaking youngsters

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ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ* ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪ ة ﻣﺴ ﻮل ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ: E-mail: [email protected] ادب و ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ در رﻣﺎن ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ﺣﺴﻴﻦ رﺣﻤﺎﻧﻲ1 * ، ﻳﺤﻴﻲ ﻣﺪرﺳﻲ2 ، ﻣﺮﻳﻢ ﺳﺎدات ﻏﻴﺎﺛﻴﺎن3 ، ﺑﻬﻤﻦ زﻧﺪي4 1 . اﺳﺘﺎدﻳﺎر زﺑﺎن ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻤﮕﺎﻧﻲ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﭘﻴﺎم ﻧﻮر، ﺗﻬﺮان، اﻳﺮان2 . اﺳﺘﺎد زﺑﺎن ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻤﮕﺎﻧﻲ، ﭘﮋوﻫﺸﮕﺎه ﻋﻠﻮم اﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ، ﺗﻬﺮان، اﻳﺮان3 . داﻧﺸﻴﺎر زﺑﺎن ﺗﻬﺮان، اﻳﺮان ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻤﮕﺎﻧﻲ، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﭘﻴﺎم ﻧﻮر،4 . اﺳﺘﺎد زﺑﺎن ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻫﻤﮕ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﭘﻴﺎم ﻧﻮر، ﺗﻬﺮان، اﻳﺮان ﺎﻧﻲ، درﻳﺎﻓﺖ:11 / 3 / 94 ﭘﺬﻳﺮش:7 / 5 / 94 ﭼﻜﻴﺪه ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ در ﻧﻈﺮ دارد ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ـ ـ ﻧﻈﺮي ادب ﺑﺮاون و ﻟﻮﻳﻨﺴﻮن) 1987 ( و ﻧﻈﺮي ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﭙﭙﺮ) 1996 ( ــ د ر ادﺑﻴﺎت داﺳﺘﺎﻧﻲ، ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ادب و ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ در ده رﻣﺎن ﺑﺮﮔﺰﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ﺑﭙﺮدازد. ﺟﺎﻣﻊ آﻣﺎري ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ، رﻣﺎن ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﺷﺪه در ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺳﺎل ﻫﺎي1391 - 1381 اﺳﺖ. ﻧﻤﻮﻧﺔ آﺛﺎر ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎي ﻣﻌﻴﺎرﻫﺎي ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﻮدن، ﮔﻔﺖ و ﮔﻮﻣﺤﻮرﺑﻮدن و ﻣﻮر دﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪﺑﻮدن ازﺳﻮي ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻧﻈﺮان در ﺟﺸﻨﻮاره ﻫﺎ، ﻧﻘﺪ و ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻫﺎ، ﺟﻮاﻳﺰ درﻳﺎﻓﺘﻲ و ... اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺑﻪ دو ﭘﺮﺳﺶ اﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ:1 . اﺳﺘﻔﺎد ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺟﻮان از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ادب و ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ در ﻣﻴﺎن ﮔﺮوه ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻻن و در ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﺑﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺗﻔﺎوﺗﻲ دارﻧﺪ؟2 . ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮرﻛﻠﻲ، ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎي رﻣﺎن ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎن، ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ادب اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ؟ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ آﻣﺪه از اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ، ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس آزﻣﻮن آﻣﺎري ﺧﻲ دو، ﺣﺎﻛﻲ از آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺟﻮان در اﻳﻦ رﻣﺎن ﻫﺎ در ﻣﻴﺎن ﮔﺮوه ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻻن از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ ﺑﻴﺸ ﺘﺮ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ و در ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﺑﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ادب اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ. اﻓﺰون ﺑﺮاﻳﻦ، در رﻣﺎن ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎن ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ اﺧﺘﻼف ﻣﻌﻨﻲ داري، ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از راﻫﺒﺮدﻫﺎي ادب اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ. ﻛﻠﻴﺪواژه ﻫﺎ : ادب، ﺑﻲ ادﺑﻲ، ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ، رﻣﺎن ﻧﻮﺟﻮاﻧﺎ ن ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ زﺑﺎن.، دوﻣﺎﻫﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﺟﺴﺘﺎرﻫﺎي زﺑﺎﻧﻲ د7 ، ش5 ﭘﻴﺎﭘﻲ) 33 ،( آذر و دي1395 ، ﺻﺺ67 - 90 [ Downloaded from lrr.modares.ac.ir on 2022-04-15 ] 1 / 24

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Politeness and Impoliteness in Persian-Speaking Youngsters’ Novels
4 3 2 *1
. 1
. 2
. 3
. 4
7/5/94: 11/3/94:

)1996( )1987(
. . 1381-1391
... .
. 1: . 2

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68
. 1 1
(1987) ;Sifianou, 1992: 82-83) 2
(Eelen, 2001: 30-86 4 / « 3.
.(9 :2003)» » 5 «
(Holmes, 1995: 4) . 6 7
. 1973
2001 .

(350 :1996) . 8
9 (1986) 10 (1998)
11 (1989) (1990)
«
12» « ». » «
13 « 14
(Culpeper et al., 2003: 1546) »
17 16 15 .
1 P. Brown and S. C. Levinson 2 politeness 3 R. J. W atts 4 (im)politeness 5 face 6 E. Goffman 7 H.P. Grice
ig 9
comm unicative strategies 13 ct 14 disharmony 15
power 16
69
1381 252 1391 )1383( )1387( )1386 (
)1382( )1390( )1389( )1382( )1387(
)1391( ) 1380(
... (1987) .
(1996) .


.

. .
. 2

(2008) 18 .
18 Zh. Ning
70

) 1389 (. .
(2010) 19 20». «
(2010) 21 . (1996) (2011) .
. (2011)
(2011).
( ) 1390 ( . ( ) )
)1390 (.
22.
(2011) (2012) .
(2012) . (2012) .
(2012) . 23.
(2012) (2012) .
19 A. Kantara 20
House M.D. 21 M. Haugh 22 P. Cutrone 23 S. Murn i and M. So lin
[ D
71
. (2012) 24
)1392 ( . . (2013) 25
(2013) 26 . . :

.
.
. 3
(1987) (1996)
.
(1987). 3- 1 «
24 Y. Febrianuswantoro 25 N. Aydinoglu 26 G. Wibowo and E. Kuntj ara
[ D
72
. (1987) (Mills, 2003: 57)» . 1987 1978
.
: «27
: «28 » (Brown &Levinson, 1987: 62)»

. 29 .
:
30 .1-3- 1
.
31 .1-3- 2 ( . 2 . 1 . 4 . 3 ) . 8 // . 7 . 6 . 5 . 9 . 12 . 11 . 10
. 15 . 14 () . 13 ). (
27 negative face
posit ive politeness
73
32 .1-3- 3 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1
. 8 . 7 . 6 . 5 . 10 . 9 .
33 .1-3- 4 . 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1
. 9 . 8 . 7 . 6 . 13 . 12 . 11 . 10
. . 15 . 14
(1996) . 3- 2
34 « (105 :1983)
»
« .
(1987) . :
35 .2-3- 1
/ .
32 negative poli teness 33 off-record 34 G. Leech 35
bald on-record impoliteness
74
36 .2-3- 2 . 3 . 2 37 . 1
. 5 . 4 . 8 . 7 . 6
. 11 . 10 . / 9 .
38 . 2-3- 3 . 3 . 2 . 1
. 5 . 4 . . 6
39. 2-3- 4
.» «
40 . 2-3- 5 .» «
. 4

.
. 4- 1

36 posit ive im poli teness 37
snub 38 negative impoliteness 39
sarcasm or m ock pol iteness 40 withhold pol iteness
[ D
75
. .
. 1-4- 1
) ( . . 1 ( ) . ( ) 2
(. ) . (3 / )
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. 1-4- 3 . ( ) . 1
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1 .
286 509 202
302 176 76
286 2 .
. . % 25/37% 75/62
[ D
78
.1 Table 1. The Frequency of the (Im)politeness Strategies in the 10 Persian –Speaking
Youngster’s Novels
2 Table 2. Percentage of the (Im)politeness Strategies in the 10 Persian –Speaking
Youngster’s Novels
3
. )P ≥ 01/0 ( 302/47
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79
.
3
Table 3. X2 Test to survey the difference between the (Im)politeness Strategies in the
Persian –Speaking Youngster’s Novels
77 .
29 43 ) 4 (
19 95 . 44
4
Table 4. The Frequency of the Politeness Strategies abided by the Youths in Inter-
group communications
80
5 Table 5. The Frequency of the Impoliteness Strategies Used by the Youths in Inter-
group communications
« 6 »
. )P≥ 01/0 ( 212/32
5 4 .
6
Table 6. X2 Test to survey the difference between the (Im)politeness Strategies among
the Youths Talking Together
81

94 . 47 43 ) 7 (
23
). 8 (
7 Table 7. The Frequency of the Politeness Strategies Used by the Youths in Talking
to Other Characters
82
8 Table 8. The Frequency of the Impoliteness Strategies Used by the Youths in
Talking to Other Characters
9
. )P ≥ 01/0 ( 909/29
8 7 .
.
9
Table 9. X2 Test to survey the difference between the (Im)politeness Strategies among
the Youths Talking to Other Characters
[ D
83
«.
( » )
) 143- 158: 1385 (
. ( )
« .
217- 221: 1379( » () «) 8: 1392
»
. .
502 . 302
. 6
(1987) (1996)
. 302 509 % 25/37 % 75/62
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84
( . ))P ≥ 01/0 ( 302/47
. .
) 77 ( . ) 95 (
01/0 ( 212/32 .
≤P(
94 .
. ) P ≥ 01/0 ( 909/29
.
. 7 1. P. Brown & S.C. Levinson
2. politeness
10. Lakoff
11. Penman
85
18. Zh. Ning
19. A. Kantara
20. House M.D.
21. M. Haugh
22. P. Cutrone
24. Y. Febrianuswantoro
25. N. Aydinoglu
27. negative face
28. positive face
30. bald on-record
31. positive politeness
32. negative politeness
37. snub
39. sarcasm or mock politeness 40. withhold politeness
. 8 . : . ). 1385 ( • : . . ). 1382 ( •
: . ). 1390 ( • .
. : ). 1391 ( • .
. : . ). 1383 ( •
[ D
86
. : . ). 1387 ( • ). «1392 ( •
». ) 2008 ( . 1-25) . 14 ( 2 4.
). 1389 ( • . .
. : . ). 1387 ( •
: . ).1380 ( • .
). 1392 ( • .
.
). 1390 ( • . :
. . : . ). 1386 ( • ). 1390 ( •
. .
. ).1379( • : .
. : . ). 1389 ( •
. . : . ).1382 ( •
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87
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