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PMA Companies. University of Scranton. Ergonomics presented by Mary Ann Bubka November 4, 2013. Ergonomics. What will be covered: What is Ergonomics? Why should we be concerned? Musculosketetal Disorders (MSDs). Ergonomic Risk Factors. What you can do to prevent injury?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • PMA CompaniesUniversity of Scranton Ergonomics presented by Mary Ann BubkaNovember 4, 2013

  • ErgonomicsWhat will be covered:

    What is Ergonomics?Why should we be concerned?Musculosketetal Disorders (MSDs).Ergonomic Risk Factors.What you can do to prevent injury?

  • *What is Ergonomicsthe science of fitting jobs to people. Ergonomics uses knowledge of physical abilities, limitations & human characteristics that apply to job design.

  • *Ergonomic Designconsiders the tasks, equipment & environment to provide efficient use of worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands do not exceed those capabilities

  • *Proper ergonomics canImprove EfficiencyIncrease Production CapabilityReduce Workplace InjuriesLower Workers Comp CostsReduce Absenteeism

  • *Muscular Skeletal Disorders

    MSDs are medical conditions that develop gradually over a period of timeMSDs do not typically result from a single instantaneous event.

  • *Muscular Skeletal DisordersMusculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an injury or illness to soft body tissue such as: MusclesNervesTendonsLigamentsJointsCartilageSpinal Discs

  • Why do we focus on Ergonomics?

    To minimize employee pain and the impact on the organization of ergonomic exposures.

  • Ergonomic related injuries May be called:CTDs - cumulative trauma disorders RSIs - repetitive stress injuriesORMSD musculoskeletal disorders

    They normally affect muscles, nerves, tendons,ligaments, joints.

  • Common types of MSDsCarpal Tunnel SyndromeTendonitisTennis ElbowTrigger FingerStrains/Sprains

  • Common SymptomsSorenessNumbnessTinglingWeaknessLimited Range of MotionSwelling

  • Controlling MSDsStep 1.Identify the risk factors

  • Ergonomic Risk FactorsRepetitionForceAwkward PostureStatic PostureContact StressTemperature ExtremesVibrationPsycho Social

  • RepetitionOccurs when the same movements are performed frequently such as keying or clicking a mouse.Can result in injury when the tissues are overused and do not have time to recuperate.Risk Factors

  • ForceForce is the amount of physical effort required by a person to do a task.With excessive force the muscles are working much harder than normal, this can lead to strain on the muscles, tendons, and joints.Risk Factors

  • *Force & ExertionForceful exertions place higher loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints Factors Weight BulkinessSpeed

  • Awkward PostureIs a deviation from the neutral body position.A neutral body position is safest and most efficient position in which to work.Awkward posture puts stress on muscles, tendons and joints.Risk Factors

  • Static PostureStatic posture occurs when one position is held for a prolonged period of time.The muscles become fatigued.This fatigue can lead to discomfort and even injury.Risk Factors

  • Contact StressContact stress is caused by any sharp or hard object putting localized pressure on a part of the body.Contact stress will irritate local tissues and interfere with circulation and nerve function.

    Risk Factors

  • Temperature ExtremesExtreme heat or cold may place stress on tissues.Risk Factors

  • *Heat & ColdHeat effects blood circulation & causes cramps, burns/rashes and general discomfort. Cold effects the body's blood circulation, causes hypothermia, loss of flexibility, distraction and poor dexterity. Comfortable temperature range 68 to 74 degrees Humidity 20 60%

  • VibrationVibration is typically not found in an office environment but can occur when using tools.Vibration places stress on the tissues of the fingers, hand and arms.Whole body vibration from driving puts stress on the spinal tissues.

    Risk Factors

  • *VibrationExcessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints and internal organsSoft tissue trauma to the hands, arms, feet and legs.

  • Psycho-social IssuesStress, boredom, job dissatisfaction and anxiety can contribute to the possibility of developing a MSD.Psycho-social issues can create increased muscle tension and reduce a persons awareness of work technique.Risk Factors

  • Other contributory factorsSmokingDiabetesObesityAge GenderLifestylePhysical activity level

  • *MSDs are caused byBendingClimbingCrawlingReachingTwistingOverexertionRepetitive Exposure

  • *Environment Risk FactorsHeat or coldLightingVibrationTool designNoise

  • *Activity Risk FactorsStatic or awkward posturesImproper grippingImproper liftingRepetitive Motion

  • *LightingUnder & over lighted areas causes:HeadachesMuscle strainsFatigueEye strainPoorly lighted areas also contributes to trip & fall hazards & poor coordination

  • *NoiseNoise peaks above 100 decibels cause:HeadachesIncreased blood pressureMuscle tension & fatigueIrritability & distraction

  • *PostureProlonged standing - varicose veins, back stress, pooling of blood in legs

    Sitting without back support - low back stress

    Seat too high - decreased circulation, (legs dangling over end) bruises

  • *PostureShoulders rounded - Upper/lower back stress, respiratory distress

    Leaning forward - Lower back stress

    Arms extended or over-reaching - Stress to arm muscles, upper back stress

  • *PostureElbows "winged" - Joint stress at shoulder, poor use of bicep musclesStepping backwards - Loss of balance, displaced gravity, muscle stressLocking knees - Stress to back of knee, poor blood circulationBent Wrist excessive force when gripping

  • *RepetitionFrequent & prolonged repetition of the same movements cause muscle fatigue and stressFactors that increase repetition hazardsNumber of cycles per minuteForce requiredPosture

  • *GrippingFactors that increase gripping hazardsBent wristSurface areaSurface frictionVibrationType of grip

  • *LiftingFactors that increase lifting hazardsWeightSizeRepetitionTwistingBendingReachingMethod

  • *Hazard ControlsEngineering ControlsWork Practice Controls

  • *Engineering ControlsRe-design of work stationRe-design of toolsLighting modificationVibration controlNoise ControlAutomationMechanical LiftingMaterial Flow

  • *Work Practice ControlsWork techniques & proceduresConditioning period Training Lifting techniquesPersonal Protective Equipment

  • *Hazard IdentificationReports of signs, symptoms & hazards Recommendations from employees & supervisors Records review of existing safety & health recordsRoutine facility safety & health inspections

  • *Information & TrainingSigns & symptoms Importance of early reporting Specific hazards & controlsReporting MSDs & hazardsHow to recommend control methods Protective MeasuresErgonomics program & their role

  • *Employee InvolvementReport of signs, symptoms & hazards

    Hazard control recommendations

    Access to information

  • *RecordkeepingReports of MSD or hazardsResponses to employee reportsJob hazard analysisHazard control recordsErgonomics program evaluationMSD management records

  • A Typical Workday

  • Controlling MSDsStep 2 Fit the workstation to you.

  • Adjusting Seat HeightKnees and hips should be level.Feet should be flat on the floor or footrest.Back of knees should not come in direct contact with the front of the seatpan.

  • Seat BackSupport your low back using the chairs backrest.

    The curve of the backrest should match the curve of your low back.

  • Arm RestsAdjust to lightly support arms.Use only for breaks or non keying/mousing activities.Lower arm rests slightly for typing or mousing.

  • Variable Back StopSlight reclining gives the spine a rest.Keep the buttocks back, dont slouch.

    Not all chairs have this feature

  • Seat TensionTurn knob or adjust lever under the chair.Adjust tension to body weight.Soft enough to recline.Firm enough to support you.

    Not all chairs have this feature

  • Keyboard / Mouse

  • KeyboardWrists should be in a neutral position. Keyboard should be flat. Key strokes should be light.

  • Adjustable Keyboard traysMake sure that your arms are in a relaxed position.Ensure adequate leg clearance under tray.

  • MouseMouse should be located adjacent to keyboard on same level.Hold hand lightly on the mouse. Use Scroll features.

  • MonitorsPlacement: directly in front of you at arms lengthtop of the screen is eye- level or lowerparallel to bright windowsAdjustments: height, angle contrast, brightness, color and refresh rate.

  • Reach ZonesFrequent Used ItemsOccasional Used ItemsRarely Used Items

  • Supporting EquipmentWrist and mouse rests called RESTS for a reason!Copy/document holdersHeadsetsFootrestsBack supports

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  • *Thank you for your attendance!Questions?

    *Todays agenda:We will discuss some supporting information on the importance of ergonomics.We will discuss the common injuries called musculoskeletal disorders.We will discuss risk factors that increase your chances of devleoping MSDsWe will discuss posture and body mechanics and how arrange your work to maintain good posture.We will talk about ergonomics: Fitting the job to the yourself, and how to prevent problems, and make better posture easy to achieve.

    *OSHA now calls these injuries Musculo-Skeletal Disorders or MSDs, previously they were called CTDs (