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An Investigatory Project Presented to: Ms. Juliet G. Balos Saint Louis College High School

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in Research II

By: Escoto, Adrian N. Viloria, Maruel Cabaog. Charisma Pascua, Kay Mae L. Rivera, Arlene Lea P.

January 11, 2011

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Nowadays, people have developed a habit of looking presentable to others. Thus, bursting the production in the field of cosmetics arose. Products that are advertised come in their own unique way. But little did the people know that most of these commercially produced products have harmful chemicals that may danger not only to them but also to the environment. The enzymes in pineapple like bromelain, which breaks down protein, thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat, are being utilize in this research makes our skin elastic, hydrated, and free from damaged cells as mentioned earlier. Thus, it helps us achieve a clear and glowing complexion. The enzymes in pineapples also fight freeradical damage and can reduce age spots and fine lines. The researcher tries to provide an introduction in enhancing cosmetic products by using fruit extracts that are cheaper and can provide the community a living with minimal cost and effort. Statement of the Problem This study will test the acceptability of using pineapple fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion considering the fact that the extract made from pineapples has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damaged skin,

3 while improving hydration and moisture and promoting a more elastic and clear looking skin. 1. What is the level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? 2. Which of the formulations yield the best lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? Hypotheses and Assumption 1. The level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient is making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect is least acceptable; b. fragrance is not acceptable and c. viscosity is least acceptable. 2. There is no formulation that can yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity. Scope and Delimitation This study is limited only on determining the acceptability of pineapple fruit as an additive ingredient in making lotion. It does not

4 involve comparison between the commercial lotion and the lotion made up of pineapple. It considers different factors which led to the result of the study. The factors being included in the study relating to the acceptability of pineapple fruit extract are the moisturizing effect, fragrance and viscosity of the lotion to be made. This study will be conducted at Sitio Paratong, Poblacion, Bacnotan, La Union. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches. They are with different sexes, ages and occupation. The researchers also made sure that they have no relationship with the respondents. Significance of the Study Studying possibilities of producing cheaper yet very useful and beneficial lotion provide the researchers an opportunity to develop value of resourcefulness and become environmental friendly in a way. Pineapple is a terrestrial herb, very short and have stout stem. Thus, conducting and proving its acceptability will surely reduce the cost of lotions. This study provides basic process and experiences necessary for anyone desiring to extend possible measures of making a lotion that is more beneficial without the expense thus making the product useful by either utilizing it or selling it to satisfy aesthetic needs and create profit.

5 This study can provide the learners to become keener in seeing a new perspective in thing therefore developing values and desirable habit. This study can also provide a livelihood that is simple yet potentially profitable. Definition of Terms Pineapple- is the common name for an edible tropical plant and also its fruit Extract- a substance made by a part of a raw material; -a concentrated preparation of the essential constituents of a food, flavoring, or other substance -acquired through the process of distillation Lotion - any of various cosmetic preparations that are applied to the skin for cosmetic or medical reason; Emulsifying Wax- a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient used primarily in manufacturing creams, lotions, and other beauty products Beeswax- it is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees of the genus Apis and can be used as a substitute for emulsifying wax. It is mainly esters of fatty acids and various long chain alcohols. Moisturizing effect - the ability to make the skin moist Fragrance - aroma: a distinctive odor that is pleasant

6 Viscosity - a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a brief literature and study on the effectiveness of Pineapple (Ananas Comoscus) fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making a moisturizing lotion. Lotion or emulsion is a skin care product that is used to soothe dry skin and is sometimes formulated with ingredients (mainly oil, water and emulsifying wax) that are intended to offer added benefits to the skin. A lotion might help to correct uneven tone in the skin or help to balance combination skin, which is skin that has some oily patches and some dry patches. Body lotion is a product that can be used from the neck down to the toes. There are, however, also emollients that are meant to be used specifically on the face. As such, face lotion is often more delicate than formulas for skin on the rest of the body. Face lotion also is sometimes formulated to address skin issues specific to the face or most commonly targeted on the facial skin. There are some lotions that are meant to help manage acne on the face. There are also many emollients for the face that are made with ingredients that help to reverse or fight the signs of aging such as fine lines, wrinkles, and various forms of sun damage. Lotions for the face often vary in thickness or viscosity, depending on whether they are meant to be worn during the day or at night. Day moisturizers and lotions are almost always lighter and less viscous than night lotions.

8 Lotions for the body might be used to address the kinds of skin issues that crop up on the legs, arms, back, belly, and so on. A lotion may include ingredients that are meant to help fade and heal stretch marks that may be the result of rapid growth, pregnancy, or weight fluctuation. Like face lotion, body lotion often includes sun block as a way to prevent sun damage to the skin. Many people who are serious about protecting their skin from sun damage wear body and face lotions with sun block on a daily basis. Lotion consists of primarily oil and water which are naturally incompatible. This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. Agitation disperses the molecules, and generates an emulsion. However, emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will is just temporary because water is denser than oil, it will sink to the bottom while the oil will float on top. However there is one way to stabilize emulsion and that is through the use of an emulsifying agent. EMULSIFYING AGENTS Emulsifying agents are substances that help water and oils bind together, and allow it to prepare stable emulsions where water and oils do not separate or substances that are soluble in both fat and water and enable fat to be uniformly dispersed in water as an emulsion.

9 There are several classifications of emulsifying agents: Natural emulsifying agents from vegetable sources which consist of agents which are carbohydrates and include gums and mucilaginous substances. Since these substances are of variable chemical composition, these exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. They are anionic in nature and produce emulsions. They act as primary emulsifying agents as well as secondary emulsifying agents, natural emulsifying agents from animal source the examples include gelatin, egg yolk and wool fat (anhydrous lanolin), type A gelatin (Cationic) is generally used for preparing emulsion while type B gelatin is used for emulsions of pH 8 and above lecithin and cholesterol present in egg yolk also act as emulsifying agent, semi-synthetic polysaccharides Includes mainly cellulose derivatives like sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxyl propyl cellulose and methyl cellulose and synthetic emulsifying agents contains surface active agents which act by getting adsorbed at the oil water interface in such a way that the hydrophilic polar groups are oriented towards water and lipophillic non polar groups are oriented towards oil, thus forming a stable film. Each differs from its source, effect and usage. EMULSIFYING COMPOUNDS AND E-WAXES

10 Often referred to as "e-wax", emulsifying compounds are widely used, both in the cosmetic and in the food industry, to prepare stable emulsions that do not separate. Virtually all emulsifying compounds and e-waxes are blends of chemically prepared substances. The vast majority of commonly available emulsifying compounds include a significant portion of petrochemical materials (fossil hydrocarbons), and several are considered or feared to be possible sources of irritation and sensitisation reactions. PINEAPPLE Pineapples are usually grown by propagation. That is, they are grown by replanting a part of themselves. The four common parts are: the slips, which are located on the stem below the fruit, the suckers that start at the leaves, the crowns-the leafy growth on top of