pilots & weather considerations

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Federal Aviation Administration. Pilots & Weather Considerations. Pilots & Weather Considerations. 1. Pilots & Weather Considerations. Pilots & Weather Considerations. What this seminar isn’t Weather 101 How to read METARs. Weather Considerations. Personal Rules to LIVE by - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Pilots & Weather ConsiderationsPilots & Weather Considerations*

  • Pilots & Weather Considerations

  • Pilots & Weather ConsiderationsWhat this seminar isntWeather 101How to read METARs

  • Weather ConsiderationsPersonal Rules to LIVE byBright Lines you dont crossPersonal WX minima VFR/IFRPAVE (pre-flight planning)CARE (in-flight decision making)

  • Weather ConsiderationsEstablish weather criteria in the comfort of your own home when you dont have a specific trip in mind

    Recognize the difference between legal and appropriate

  • Weather ConsiderationsPersonal VFR MinimumsCeilingVisibilityMax X-Wind ComponentFuel Reserves (Day/Night)

  • Weather ConsiderationsPersonal IFR MinimumsPrecision ApproachesCeiling (above published mins)Visibility (above published mins)Non-Precision ApproachesTakeoff MinimumsFuel ReservesFreezing Level height above cruise alt

  • PAVEDuring Pre-flight planning evaluate:PilotAircraftenVironmentExternal Pressures

  • PAVEIn pre-flight planning the PAVE checklist reminds you to consider:Pilot: Health (IMSAFE - Illness, Medication, Stress, Alcohol, Fatigue, and Emotional state) qualifications, capabilities, currency, proficiency, IFR/VFRAircraft: Equipment, performance, load, fuel capacity, runway surface and length, operating ceiling, limitations

  • PAVEThe PAVE checklist continued:EnVironment: Weather, personal minimums, terrain, over water, high altitude operations, airspace and NOTAMsExternal Pressures: Expectant host, planned meeting, special event, passengers

  • Elements in the PAVE checklist are cumulative. A major problem in any area is reason to cancel the flight but multiple minor problems in more than one area can also make delaying the flight a good idea.A single problem in any area should be a yellow flag to take notice but two or more problem areas should be a red flag to take action and change your plan.

  • CAREIn flight monitor changes in the PAVE criteria and consider:ConsequencesAlternativesRealityExternal Pressures

  • CAREOnce youre airborne use the CARE checklist to stay on top of factors affecting the flight.Consequences: Consider consequences of changing risk factors during the flight (Pilot, Aircraft, EnVironment, and External pressures) and the decisions you make regarding them.Alternatives: Have a back up when you cant continue as planned, remembering that your alternatives will decrease as the flight progresses and you burn the fuel that will allow you to take a different route or divert

  • CAREThe CARE checklist continued:Reality: Maintain situational awareness and deal with the actual conditions, not what you hoped or planned would happen. Accept change and take proper actionExternal pressures: Other people or personal commitments cause goal oriented behavior at the expense of making good decisions.

  • CAREAs with the PAVE checklist, items in the CARE checklist are also cumulative. While a single major problem in any area can cause a complete change of plans, minor problems in two or more items of the CARE checklist should cause you to re-evaluate the situation and take appropriate action

  • Weather ConsiderationsThe PAVE and CARE checklists are your virtual co-pilot, the challenging voice in the back of your head that causes you to evaluate each flight management decision you make and validate that decision against a personal standard rather than just winging it.

  • Weather ConsiderationsLocal Weather StuffLingering Marine LayerSanta Ana WindsTurbulenceMountain WaveLow freezing levelsSnow & Ice away from home

  • Weather Considerations

    Would you be happy with the headline in tomorrows newspaper?

    Would you do this with 100 paying passengers in the back?

  • FAASafety.govRegister at FAASafety.govDocument your support for the programAttend Safety SeminarsGreen Stamps in the BankNASA Incident ReportingImmunity for unintentional violations5 year clockMust be able to document to be able to use

  • Flying is not inherently dangerous, but to an even greater extent than the sea, it is terribly unforgiving of any carelessness, incapacity, or neglect.

    Thank you for attending.

    Rich Martindell http://www.wild-blue-yonder.com619.253.7649 May 31, 2007

    This flight originated in sunny San Diego on a Christmas trip to Oregon. Our fearless pilot did some things right and some things could have been done better, BUT in every case he used good judgment once he analyzed the situation. Well discuss these throughout the presentation.As much as possible, we need to get the decision making process out of the subjective and into an objective set of criteia. Weather that is legal by FARs may not be appropriate or safe for the situation a pilot is facing.You set the minimums and you can change them based on the conditions if there is a good reason to do so. For instance, if you have been flying regularly you might feel comfortable lowering your minimums but if you havent flown for a while you definitely want to raise them. Also, minimums around your home field where you are comfortable and familiar with the area might be some what lower than what youd want to live with on a cross country into a strange field.Same as previous slidePilot, weather and environment are important considerations in setting personal minimums. Dont let External Pressures override your sound judgment regarding the others.The fearless pilot in our example knew his limitations and his aircrafts capabilities. He was prepared to deal with the weather and fully understood that he needed to combat the external pressures of his family waiting for him in Oregon to celebrate Christmas. He left two days early for a one day trip to allow time to sit out bad weather. His trip up to Oregon from San Diego went perfectly and he was able to fly all three flights in one day. While he was in Oregon a front went through and dumped snow on his airplane as you saw in the opening picture. His mistake was to not clear the snow off the airplane as soon as it accumulated. While he was waiting for the weather to clear, snow melted and the water froze on the controls and in the starter for the engine. Once the weather broke he then had to thaw out the airplane so he enlisted the help of a local with a heated hangar. It took him longer to get going than he had planned so he only made it half way from Oregon to San Diego on the first day of his return trip. He stopped in Mojave, CA to spend the night. Again, he had time to get back to San Diego before he had to be back at work after the Christmas break.This is local stuff for San Diego and Southern California. Other briefers can substitute information for their local area.


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