Physics Notes Waves and Optics Chapters 16-17, 24-26

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  • Physics NotesWaves and Optics

    Chapters 16-17, 24-26

  • Wave - the motion of a disturbance that transmits energyComparing Types of Waves

    1. Mechanical vs ElectromagneticMechanical - requires a medium to transfer energyie. slinky, water, sound, earthquakeElectromagnetic - requires no medium ie. radio, micro, IR, visual, UV, X, gamma

  • 3. Transverse vs LongitudinalTransverse Particles or disturbance vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of energy transferie. light, slinkyLongitudinal - Particles vibrate parallel to the direction of the energy transfer (Pressure Wave)compression vs rarefractionie. sound, slinky

  • Transverse Waves

  • Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

  • Aspects of all SHM (including waves)

    Amplitude (A) - maximum displacement from equilibrium (m) Intensity or Energy

    Period (T) - time to complete 1 cycle of motion (sec)

    Frequency (f) - number of cycles per unit time (Hz)

    T = 1f = 1 f T

  • More Characteristics of WavesCrest and Trough- the highest and lowest points from the equilibrium position

    Wavelength (l) - The distance between two adjacent similar points of a periodic wave (m)

    Node - Position on a standing wave that has no displacement

    Antinode Position on a standing wave that is displaced to its maximum displacement

  • Standing Wave when two waves traveling in opposite directions interfereThe waves must have the same f, A, and lPoints of complete constructive and destructive interference

  • Standing Waves

  • How many degrees out of phase are these 2 waves?Which points are in phase?In Phase points on a wave in the same point in their cycleC and F90

  • The Speed of a Wave on a string or spring

    V = [F/ (m/L)]

  • The Speed of a WaveV = d t

    V = f l = l T

    f = 1 T

    The speed of sound in air is 331 m/sThe speed of light in a vacuum is 3.00 x 108 m/s = c

  • *Notes from Activity: Waves and Springs

    What happens to a wave form when there is a disturbance in the medium through which it is traveling???

    Standing WavesWave interactionsInterference: ConstructiveDestructive

  • Constructive Interference

  • Destructive Interference

  • Reflection of a Pulse

  • SoundSound waves are __________ and ___________.Pitch - how high or low we perceive sound to be, depending on the frequency of the sound waveThe audible range for humans is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.Ultrasonic waves: Medical applications, animal communication, others...

    Speed of sound depends on the medium in which it is traveling in. Speed generally increases with: denser phasehigher temperature

  • Sound does not travel in a linear wave as we sometimes model it. It really travels in 3D.

    Wave fronts - the concentric spheres of compression radiating from the source of the sound

  • Doppler Effect - frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the source of waves and an observermoving towardsf1 = f / (1 - Vs/V)moving awayf1 = f / (1 + Vs/V)f = emitted frequencyf1 = perceived frequencyV Velocity of Sound (331 m/s)Vs Relative velocity of the Source

    Hear the Doppler Effect Great Physlet

    Click here to see the video of a plane breaking the sound barrier

    Know Red Shift and Blue Shift

  • Doppler Effect

  • Intensity - rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motionintensity = P = P A 4pr2Decibel Level (dB) - relative intensity of sound (logarithmic relationship)

  • Natural frequency - certain frequency at which an object vibratesResonance - a condition that exists when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system.

    Disastrous effects from earthquakes or winds

  • Harmonicsfundamental frequency - the lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave

    harmonic series - series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones)

    Standing wave on a vibrating stringPipe open at both endsPipe closed at one end

  • Beat - interference of waves of slightly different frequencies traveling in the same direction, perceived as a variation in loudnessinterference: constructive and destructive

    f beat = (f1 - f2 ) or (f2 - f1 )

    Create and Hear Beats:

  • Light waves are __________ and __________.

    Electromagnetic Waves a transverse wave consistingof oscillating electricand magnetic fields at right angles toeach other

  • Radio, Micro, IR, light, UV, X, GammaRange of l and f

  • LightVisible Spectrum (l = 700 nm to 400 nm) 700 nm = 700 x 10-9 m = 7.00 x 10-7 m Again, a range of colors: ROY G BV

  • Wave speed v = f l = d/t

    For light, (c = speed of light = 3.00 x 108 m/s)

    c = f l

    All electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light and behave with the characteristics of light, but they can not be detected by the eye

  • Light Year the distance that light travels in a year

    d = V x t = 3 x 108 m/s x 1 year

    now convert

    3 x 108 m x 1 year x 365 days x 24 hours x 3600 s s 1 year 1 day 1 hour

    d = 9.46 x 1015 m

  • Luminous Flux (P) - the rate at which visible light is emitted from a source. Unit = lumen (lm) or WattIlluminance (E) - the rate at which light falls on a surfaceUnit = lux (lx) = lm/m2 or Watt/m2 or candela

    E = P = P (sphere) A 4pr2

    Luminous vs- IlluminatedLuminous Intesity (l) the luminuous flux that falls on an area of 1 m2 Unit candela or candle power

  • LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent lightLight Amplification by Simulated Emission of RadiationApplications:

    Diffraction - the spreading of a wave into a region behind an obstructionenergy is dispersedmay result in areas of constructive and destructive interferenceSpectral Emissions and Absorption

  • Double Slit DiffractionMaxima Constructive Interferenced sin q = m lMinima Destructive Interferenced sin q = (m + ) lm = order of the maxima (0, 1, 2, 3)d = distance between slits

    Single Slit Diffraction= d sin qd = width of slit

  • What happens when waves interact with matter?

    Reflection - the turning back of waves at the surface of a substance

    angle of incidence = angle of reflectionqi = qrboth angles are relative to the normal at the point of contactvirtual image - an image formed by light rays that only appear to intersectflat mirror-

  • MirrorsConvex/ConcaveVirtual/RealUpright/InvertedRadius of Curvature and Focal LengthObject and Image DistanceMagnification

  • Mirrors1 + 1 = 1so si fMagnificationM = h1 = - si h so

  • Mirror Notes and Equations* Given through Activity: Concave and Convex MirrorsConvex/ConcaveVirtual/RealUpright/InvertedRadius of Curvature and Focal LengthObject and Image DistanceMagnification

    Great Physlet

  • Reflection: The color that we perceive an object to be is the color of the light which that object reflects

  • LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent lightLight Amplification by Simulated Emission of RadiationApplications:

  • Polarization: The alignment of transverse waves in such a way that their vibrations are parallel to each other-some crystals naturally polarize-polymers -double polarization-applications: reflected glare is generally horizontal

  • Refraction: The bending of wave disturbance as it passes at an angle from one medium into anotherdifferent media result in different speeds of transmission

    Index of Refraction (n): -ratio of speeds of lightn = c v

  • The degree of refraction is determined by:Snells Lawn1 (sin q1) = n2(sin q2)

    know bending towards or away

    As a wave travels from a medium to another velocity and wavelength change, but frequency does not.n2 = V1 = l1n1 V2 l2

  • Dispersion when white light separates into the spectrum of colors- results because different wavelengths travel at different speeds and refract differently

  • Total Internal Reflection - the complete reflection of light at the boundary of two transparent media; this effect occurs when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle

    Critical angle sin qc = nr nionly when ni > nr

  • Lens - a transparent object that refracts light rays, causing them to converge or diverge to create an imageconverging lenses vs diverging lensesfocal point (f) for a lens is the image distance for an object at an infinite distancef is: + for converging, - for divergingRay Diagrams: 3 reference raysIs the Image:Real or VirtualUpright or InvertedEnlarged or Smaller

  • For lenses, the distance equation is similar to that of mirrors1 + 1 = 1so si fMagnificationM = h1 = - si h so

    Lenses: the eyeglasses - combinatio


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