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Photovoltaic Power. John Bothof. John Bothof. Photovoltaic Experience. Ameren Solar Technology Center Military NJ ANG Hickam Luke AFB Doha Qatar: Ex Hall Student Housing El Dorado 10MW Copper Mountain 50MW. Solar Industry. Industry Growth. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Photovoltaic Power

Photovoltaic PowerJohn Bothof

John BothofPhotovoltaic ExperienceAmeren Solar Technology CenterMilitaryNJ ANGHickamLuke AFBDoha Qatar:Ex HallStudent HousingEl Dorado 10MWCopper Mountain 50MW

Solar IndustryIndustry GrowthGrid-connected PV Installations grew 66%. (Q1 2011 vs Q1 2010)US Grid Connected PV now over 2.3GW.US Module Production increased 17% from last quarter.Anticipate Doubling of installations from 2010.2010 had 60% growth.

Cost Reductions

Increased Energy DemandUnited States Net Generation 2009 (Thousand megawatt hours)3,950331Sales to Ultimate Customers 2009 (thousand megawatt hours)3,723803

Increase Demand

PhotovoltaicsSolar EnergyThe energy we get from our sun is the result of nuclear fusion reactions.

Our sun is made up of hydrogen which is gradually being converted into helium.

The waste from this reaction (derived from e=mc2) is heat and light energy.

Power Content of the Solar Spectrum

Harvesting and Using Solar EnergyTechnologiesDifferent Technologies are used to take advantage of the energy in throughout the solar spectrum.

Photovoltaic TechnologiesThe direct conversion of sunlight into energyConverts the energy in the visible spectrum into electricity.

Solar Thermal TechnologiesUse the energy in the heat part of the solar spectrum.

Solar Thermal

PhotovoltaicsFlat Plate Collectors

PhotovoltaicsPhysics

PhotovoltaicsCell The electronic charges within the doped material create an electric field across the depletion layer.When sunlight strikes the cell it can knock an electron out of its atomic orbitThe electric field sweeps the electron towards the top electrodes The gap or hole left by the electron is swept towards the back plateThe flow of charges makes an electric current which powers an attached electric circuit

+-+-+-+-+-PhotovoltaicsCell TechnologyCrystallineMono Most efficientMost ExpensivePolyMiddle Man

PhotovoltaicsCell TechnologyThin filma-Si CdTeCISCIGSGaAs

PhotovoltaicsConcentrated Solar

PhotovoltaicsAmeren Solar Technology CenterCompare Technology OutputSame conditionsMissouri WeatherCustomer Service

PhotovoltaicAmeren Solar Technology Center

PhotovoltaicsTrackingSingle Axis25% more kWhTilted Single Axis27-32% more kWhBi-Axis35 to 40% more kWh

ArrayModulesSeries & Parallel CellsModules Placed in series are called stringsWhat is a Panel????

ArrayCombinerCombine Strings in ParallelNEC required fuse

ArrayInverterConverts DC into AC

ArrayARRAYMODULESTRINGCELL

InverterCombinerArrayAdvancesManufacturing StandardsImplementation StandardsMPPT TrackingBalance of SystemsInverter Improvements

EnergySolar Power as a Generating SourceReasonsIncreasing Energy DemandEnergy IndependenceDistributed Generation

ChallengesGrid PenetrationCostPermitting Transmission

EnergyImprovementsIEEE 1547Allow low voltage ride throughInverters can be StabilizingTransmission Smart GridEnergy Storage

Arguing with an Engineer is like wrestling with a pig in the mud, it doesnt take long to figure out the pig likes it.

Questions

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