Phonics Principles

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<p>Phonics refers to an instructional method for teaching children to read English</p> <p>Phonics refers to an instructional method for teaching children to read English. Phonics involves teaching children to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, or ck spellings) and teaching them to blend the sounds of letters together to produce approximate pronunciations of unknown words.</p> <p>Alphabetic principleFrom a linguistics perspective, English spelling is based on the alphabetic principle. In an alphabetic writing system, letters are used to represent speech sounds, or phonemes. For example, the word pat is spelled with three letters, p, a, and t, each representing a phoneme, respectively, /p/, //, and /t/.[1]The spelling systems for some alphabetic languages, such as Spanish, are relatively simple because there is nearly a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and the letter patterns that represent them. English spelling is more complex, because it attempts to represent the 40+ phonemes of the spoken language with an alphabet composed of only 26 letters (and no accents). As a result, two letters are often fused together into groups that represent distinct sounds, referred to as digraphs. For example "t" and "h" placed side by side are used to represent a third sound /th/ (IPA:// or //).</p> <p>English has absorbed large amounts of words from other languages throughout its history, without changing the spelling of those words. As a result, the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of five languages (Old English, Danish, Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek) superimposed upon one another.[2] These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions. [3] The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow the stated pattern. For example, the letters ee almost always represent /i/, but the sound can also be represented by the letter y. Similarly, the letter cluster ough represents /f/ as in enough, /o/ as in though, /u/ as in through, /f/ as in cough, and /a/ as in bough.</p> <p>Although the patterns are inconsistent, when English spelling rules take into account syllable structure, phonetics, and accents, there are dozens of rules that are 75% or more reliable. [4]A selection of phonics patterns is shown below.</p> <p>Vowel phonics patterns Short vowels are the five single letter vowels, a, e, i, o, and u when they produce the sounds // as in cat, // as in bet, // as in sit, // as in hot, and // as in cup. The term "short vowel" does not really mean that these vowels are pronounced for a particularly short period of time, but they are not diphthongs like the long vowels. </p> <p> Long vowels are synonymous with the names of the single letter vowels, such as /e/ in baby, /i/ in meter, /a/ in tiny, /o/ in broken, and /ju/ in humor. The way that educators use the term "long vowels" differs from the way in which linguists use this term. In classrooms, long vowels sounds are taught as being "the same as the names of the letters." </p> <p> Schwa is the third sound that most of the single vowel spellings can produce. The schwa is an indistinct sound of a vowel in an unstressed syllable, represented by the linguistic symbol . // is the sound made by the o in lesson. Schwa is a vowel pattern that is not always taught to elementary school students because it is difficult to understand. However, some educators make the argument that schwa should be included in primary reading programs because of its importance in reading English words. </p> <p> Closed syllables are syllables in which a single vowel letter is followed by a consonant. In the word button, both syllables are closed syllables because they contain single vowels followed by consonants. Therefore, the letter u' represents the short sound //. (The o in the second syllable makes the // sound because it is an unstressed syllable.) </p> <p> Open syllables are syllables in which a vowel appears at the end of the syllable. The vowel will say its long sound. In the word basin, ba is an open syllable and therefore says /be/. </p> <p> Diphthongs are linguistic elements that fuse two adjacent vowel sounds. English has four common diphthongs. The commonly recognized diphthongs are /a/ as in cow and // as in boil. Four of the long vowels are also technically diphthongs, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /ju/, which partly accounts for the reason they are considered "long." </p> <p> Vowel digraphs are those spelling patterns wherein two letters are used to represent the vowel sound. The ai in sail is a vowel digraph. Because the first letter in a vowel digraph sometimes says its long vowel sound, as in sail, some phonics programs once taught that "when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking." This convention has been almost universally discarded, owing to the many non-examples. The au spelling of the // sound and the oo spelling of the /u/ and // sounds do not follow this pattern. </p> <p> Vowel-consonant-E spellings are those wherein a single vowel letter, followed by a consonant and the letter e makes the long vowel sound. Examples of this include bake, theme, hike, cone, and cute. (The ee spelling, as in meet is sometimes considered part of this pattern.) </p> <p>Consonant phonics patterns Consonant digraphs are those spellings wherein two letters are used to represent a consonant phoneme. The most common consonant digraphs are ch for /t/, ng for //, ph for /f/, sh for //, th for // and //, and wh for // (often pronounced /w/ in American English). Letter combinations like wr for /r/ and kn for /n/ are also consonant digraphs, although these are sometimes considered patterns with "silent letters." </p> <p> Short vowel+consonant patterns involve the spelling of the sounds /k/ as in peek, /d/ as in stage, and /t/ as in speech. These sounds each have two possible spellings at the end of a word, ck and k for /k/, dge and ge for /d/, and tch and ch for /t/. The spelling is determined by the type of vowel that precedes the sound. If a short vowel precedes the sound, the former spelling is used, as in pick, judge, and match. If a short vowel does not precede the sound, the latter spelling is used, as in took, barge, and launch. </p> <p>The final "short vowel+consonant pattern" is just one example of dozens that can be used to help children unpack the challenging English alphabetic code. This example illustrates that, while complex, English spelling retains order and reason.</p> <p>Sight words and high frequency words There are words that do not follow these phonics rules, such as were, who, and you. They are often called "sight words" because they must be memorized by sight. </p> <p> Teachers who use phonics also often teach students to memorize the most high frequency words in English, such as it, he, them, and when, even though these words are fully decodable. The argument for teaching these "high frequency words" is that knowing them will improve students' reading fluency. </p> <p> There are ways to aid in the memorization of sight words through the use of multi-sensory activities such as arm-tapping. </p> <p>History and controversyBecause of the complexity of written English, more than a century of debate has occurred over whether English phonics should or should not be used in teaching beginning reading. Despite the work of 19th century proponents such as Rebecca Smith Pollard, some American educators, prominently Horace Mann, argued that phonics should not be taught at all. This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the "Dick and Jane" readers popular in the mid-20th century. Beginning in the 1950s, however, phonics resurfaced as a method of teaching reading. Spurred by Rudolf Flesch's criticism of the absence of phonics instruction (particularly in his popular book, Why Johnny Can't Read) phonics resurfaced, butowing to Flesch's polemical approachthe term "phonics" became associated with political ideology.</p> <p>When two or more letters appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the combination is called a blend. For instance, the word blend has two consonant blends: bl, for which you hear the sounds for both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the sounds for both n and d.Two-Letter Blends</p> <p> bl, which blends the /b/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /bl/ sound as in blend and blight </p> <p> br, which blends the /b/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /br/ sound as in break and brown </p> <p> cl, which blends the /c/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /cl/ sound as in cluster and class </p> <p> cr, which blends the /c/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /cr/ sound as in crash and cross </p> <p> dr, which blends the /d/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /dr/ sound as in drive and drab </p> <p> fl, which blends the /f/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /fl/ sound as in flu and flake </p> <p> fr, which blends the /f/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /fr/ sound as in freedom and frost </p> <p> gl, which blends the /g/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /gl/ sound as in glad and glory </p> <p> gr, which blends the /g/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /gr/ sound as in green and gravy </p> <p> nd, which blends the /n/ and the /d/ sounds together to make the /nd/ sound as in blend and send </p> <p> pl, which blends the /p/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /pl/ sound as in play and plow </p> <p> pr, which blends the /p/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /pr/ sound as in prime and prowl </p> <p> sl, which blends the /s/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /sl/ sound as in slogan and sloppy </p> <p> sm, which blends the /s/ and the /m/ sounds together to make the /sm/ sound as in small and smart </p> <p> sn, which blends the /s/ and the /n/ sounds together to make the /sn/ sound as in snail and snore </p> <p> sp, which blends the /s/ and the /p/ sounds together to make the /sp/ sound as in special and spackel </p> <p> st, which blends the /s/ and the /t/ sounds together to make the /st/ sound as in stop and start </p> <p>Three-Letter Blends shr, which blends the /sh/ digraph and the /r/ sound together to make the /shr/ sound as in shroud </p> <p> spl, which blends the /sp/ blend and the /l/ sound together to make the /spl/ sound as in splash and spendid </p> <p> spr, which blends the /sp/ blend and the /r/ sound together to make the /spr/ sound as in spring and spray </p> <p> squ, which blends the /s/ sound and the /sq/ digraph together to make the /squ/ sound as in squid and squelch </p> <p> str, which blends the /st/ blend and the /r/ sound together to make the /str/ sound as in struggle and strap </p> <p> thr, which blends the /th/ digraph and the /r/ sound together to make the /thr/ sound as in throw </p> <p>When a vowel is followed by a consonant, the vowel is short. The diacritical mark for a short vowel is called a breve (), which is in the shape of a downturned arc.A vowel is usually short when there is only one vowel in a word or syllable, as in cat, bed, and hot. However, there are exceptions to this rule, such as with irregular vowels.</p> <p>There is both a long and short sound to oo. The short sound appears as in the words book, booth, and took.</p> <p> The following is a list of short vowel sounds, shown along with their diacritical marks:</p> <p> Short a () sound as in at, taxi, anniversary, laboratory, and tackle </p> <p> Short e () sound as in elm, elevator, jellyfish, pentagon, and dentist </p> <p> Short i () sound as in it, gift, inflate, spinach, and cereal </p> <p> Short o () sound as in hop, camouflage, garage, chop, father, paw, and binoculars </p> <p> Short u () sound as in up, cut and subtract </p> <p>For a complete list of long, short, and other sounds, see letter sounds</p> <p>A long vowel sound is the same as its name. The diacritical mark for a long vowel is called a macron (), which is in the shape of a line above the vowel.When a single vowel letter is in the end of a word (or syllable), it usually says its long sound (or its name), as in go and be. When two vowels go hand in hand in the same word (or syllable), the first vowel is usually long, and the second vowel is usually silent. e.g., bake makes the /ay/ sound (long a) and the e is silent; goal makes the /oh/ sound (long o) and the a is silent. However, there are many exceptions to this rule, such as with irregular vowels.</p> <p>When there are two adjacent vowels in a word, the first one is long and the second one is silent. The first vowel is marked with a long line and second one is crossed out. Examples of this rule are in coat, ride, and read.</p> <p>There is both a long and short sound to oo. The long sound appears as in the words boo, food, smooth, and moose.</p> <p>The following is a list of long vowel sounds, shown along with their diacritical marks:</p> <p> Long a () sound as in ape, snail, ache, explain, and reindeer </p> <p> Long e () sound as in eat, agony, needle, pianist, and electricity </p> <p> Long i () sound as in eye, cry, tightrope, tile, and violin </p> <p> Long o () sound as in oh, domino, ghost, pillow, and stethoscope </p> <p> Long u () sound as in you, salute, toothbrush, goose, boot, and costume </p> <p>For a complete list of long, short, and other sounds, see letter sounds</p> <p>Consonant Sounds</p> <p>Consonants are the letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech. These are the sounds, or phonemes, of single consonants: /b/ sound as in bonfire, black, bathtub, and balcony </p> <p> /d/ sound as in dry, draw, design, and duet </p> <p> /f/ sound as in fossil, fail, frame, and fingerprint </p> <p> /g/ sound as in greeting, grill, goose, and grapefruit </p> <p> /h/ sound as in hail, hieroglyphics, hostage, and hit </p> <p> /j/ sound as in magician, syringe, jeep, and message </p> <p> /k/ sound as in key, knock, kangaroo, and kayak </p> <p> /l/ sound as in lizard, learn, lamp, and library </p> <p> /m/ sound as in mug, money, maze, and mechanical </p> <p> /n/ sound as in night, newspaper, nightmare, and noodle </p> <p> /p/ sound as in panda, pie, pen, and potato </p> <p> /r/ sound as in rose, restaurant, run, and reporter </p> <p> /s/ sound as in safe, sunset, sand, and seat </p> <p> /t/ sound as in tile, thermometer, tongue, and toy </p> <p> /v/ sound as in violin, volcano, vaccination, and vote </p> <p> /w/ sound as in waterfall, wagon, windmill, and watch </p> <p> /y/ sound as in yoke, yawn, yacht, and yoga </p> <p> /z/ sound as in zebra, zoo, and zipper </p> <p>Sometimes the vowel u takes upon itself the consonant sound of w, as in quick or suave. This is usually the case when q is followed by u, as in quiet and quaint.Vowel Sounds</p> <p>A vowel is a sound made by the relatively free movement of air through the mouth, usually forming the main sound of a syllable. The vowels are a, e, i, o, and u.Each vowel has two sounds: a long sound and a short sound. The long sound is the same as its name. Every vowel also makes a third sound: th...</p>