PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH in Choral Pedagogy in Choral Pedagogy.

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  • PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH in Choral Pedagogy in Choral Pedagogy
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  • I. Doing Philosophy II. Philosophy in the Context of Choral Music
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  • are vehicles we think with.
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  • Like mental lenses they contribute to how we perceive phenomena and thus to what we may see.
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  • Researchers owe much to ideas and the lenses they provide.
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  • a process of systematic inquiry by which data are gathered, analyzed, and interpreted in ways that contribute to the development of knowledge.
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  • often reflects a dialectic between: provisional ideas (hypotheses) exegetic ideas (theories)
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  • may also be mediated by schemata learned, highly organized, networked conceptual patterns that actively create expectations as they encounter new data
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  • Explanatory Constructs: larger configurations of cognition, such as schemata and theories theories are more passive mental data intentionally manipulated by thought schemata are more actively a part of a researchers own cognitive processing procedures, evaluating incoming data, both sensory and mental, for quality of fit
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  • We are tempted to assume that we see the world directly and immediately.
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  • But our insight is always mediated by ideas, concepts and explanatory constructs... many of which we take for granted and rarely question.
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  • Researchers owe much to ideas.
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  • But its sometimes difficult to think about ideas themselves.....that is, to think about how we think.
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  • Philosophy is thinking about how we think.
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  • Doing Philosophy pursuit of wisdom loving wisdom thinking about thinking
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  • Doing Philosophy Philosophy is different from: opinion point of view preference ideology belief
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  • Doing Philosophy The opinion of a thousand jackasses is just that: the opinion of a thousand jackasses. The motivation of philosophy derives from an uneasiness with the status quo.
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  • Doing Philosophy A basic pre-requisite for doing philosophy: An open mind uncluttered in so far as possible by pre-conceived or pre- determined parameters
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  • Doing Philosophy Basic tools of philosophical research: critical reason/logic language
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  • Doing Philosophy Three basic procedures in philosophic research: Criticism...evaluate basic alternative modes of life and thought and formulate choices Speculationconstruct ideal futures or projections of desirable experiences Analysisclarification of thoughts, concepts, and the meaning of language
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  • Doing Philosophy Basic way of doing philosophy: argument An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a definite proposition.--Monty Python
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  • Doing Philosophy Arguments and Non-Arguments Every scene of this movie was filled with excitement for me. I particularly liked the action scenes on the river. expression of support/enthusiasm, not an argument I spent five hundred dollars to take this course and the professor appeared in blue jeans and tee shirt, which I consider bad taste. He may have known what he was talking about, but I couldnt get past the clothes. a complaint/grip, not an argument The sincerest satisfaction in life comes in doing ones duty and in being a dependable person. a statement of point of view, not an argument
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  • Doing Philosophy He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprise, either of virtue or mischief. -Francis Bacon Women have great strengths, but they are strengths to help the man. A womans primary purpose in life and marriage is to help her husband succeed. -James Robinson Elaborated, but unsupported statements of opinion, not arguments.
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  • Doing Philosophy Basic ingredients of an argument: Proposition (statement or assertion that is either true or false) A proposition can be either: a premise, or a conclusion. A first step toward understanding arguments is learning to identify premises and conclusions. Unfortunately, they are not always explicit.
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  • Doing Philosophy In a basic deductive argument if a premise is false, so is everything else Garbage in. Garbage out. GIGO
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  • Doing Philosophy Validity and Soundness of Arguments All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal. premises are true, inference is valid All cats are animals. All pigs are animals. All pigs are cats. premises are true, but improper inference All movie stars live in Hollywood. Robert Redford is a movie star. Therefore Robert Redford lives in Hollywood. false premise, but valid reasoning a valid argument, but not a sound argument
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  • Doing Philosophy Philosophy pervades all research. The purpose of this study is... To that end, the following research questions were designed for this study: Sometimes said that only numbers (quantitative research) delivers objectivity. Yet, such numbers relate to a premise. Statistics test premises, they do not generate them.
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  • Doing Philosophy Engagement with both relies essentially upon argument. Philosophy is both a body of knowledge (history of ideas) and an ongoing, systematic method of inquiry By means of analyses based on arguments, philosophers can do experiments: thought experiments, where variables are manipulated in imagination rather than in laboratories or in field work.
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  • Doing Philosophy Scientific method was born from philosophy Positivism Post-positivism critiques: feminists deconstructionists
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  • a process of systematic inquiry by which data are gathered, analyzed, and interpreted in ways that contribute to the development of knowledge. the data for philosophical research are ideas, concepts, and explanatory constructsphilosophers inspect the architecture of such cognitive units, asking How do we know what we know? and Why? philosophers are all about construct validity.
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy challenge... the validity of extant ideas and practices. They systematically ask whether these ideas and practices are well grounded. They bypass the peripheral and trivial issues, going to the core of why things are as they seem to be and where they seem to be going. As such, they address central questions relating to (choral pedagogy) and challenge its very reason for beingby clarifying terms, exposing and evaluating assumptions, and developing systematic bodies of thought that connect with other ideas in respect to a wide range of issues touching on (choral pedagogy). --Estelle Jorgensen In the context of choral pedagogy, philosophers may
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy What is this?
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy --James R. Oestreich, The New York Times, Sunday, January 22, 2001, p 30 Arts & Leisure (on why the 1980 edition of Groves decided not to have an entry on music). Music For music, despite the saw about its being an international language, is many things to many people, places, and times.
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy We could find no one person who could have written on music and the changing significance of the term through the ages. --Stanley Sadie, Editor of The New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians Music
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy the deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to transmit or evoke knowledge, attitudes, values, skills and sensibilities --Lawrence A. Cremin (definition of education) In what ways does the context of choral music making impact and/or modify this definition?
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy Why choral music? art for arts sake socialization, enculturation, ethos, teamwork, family, discipline, travel learn how to develop and use your voice makes you smarter get to dress in formal clothes ?
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy MUSIC PEDAGOGY GENUS Species Pedagogy Music Pedagogy through music Pedagogy in music MusicPedagogy
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy MUSIC PEDAGOGY GENUS Species Pedagogy Music CHORAL MUSIC PEDAGOGY PedagogyChoral Music The introduction of Choral adds interesting wrinkles, because choral music (1) has text and (2) is done in groups.
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy 1. Choral music has text constructs associated with absolute music or music alone can be problematic, unless one postulates that text can be ignored Historically, for example: Choruses have functioned better in the context of general education than the fine arts as a whole, perhaps because of their relationship with text. For example: The Greek Chorus, Church Choir, etc. are as much about ethos as music. Vocal/choral music, not instrumental music, was first admitted as a curricular subject in US public schools St. Johns College still requires every student to take chorus.
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  • Philosophy and Choral Pedagogy 1. Chorusing is a group activity constructs derived from solo singing can be problematic acoustically and pedagogically singing is not just singing; it has contexts, ensemble singing being one such context this factor may have ramifications for many facets of choral musicking: auditions, warm-ups, formation/placement, choir size, etc.
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  • Approaches to choral pedagogy based on characteristics of the individual voice tend simply to transfer those particular characteristics to the group as a whole. A conductor works with an ensemble much like a voice teacher works with a single student in a studio. An Example: Explicit Group Teaching and Associated Choral Sound Assumptions
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  • The fundamental assumption here is that the whole (in this case the Choir and its sound) is simply the sum of its constituent parts (i.e., the individual human voices that comprise the Choir).
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  • Canons of logic call this kind of faulty reasoning the... + ++ + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + Choir = Yet, empirical research demonstrates that solo singing and choral singing are two distinct modes of phonation, i.e., people phonate differently in choirs than they do as soloists; and that acoustic properties of choral sound are different than those of individual sound.
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  • Fallacy of Composition Trying to apply what is true of an individual to the group as a wholeTrying to apply what is true of an individual to the group as a whole Assuming that characteristics of the parts transfer to the characteristics of the whole made up of those partsAssuming that characteristics of the parts transfer to the characteristics of the whole made up of those parts The whole is simply the sum of its parts.The whole is simply the sum of its parts. Example: Each part of this machine is light; therefore, this must be a very light machine. Example: Each part of this machine is light; therefore, this must be a very light machine.
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  • Fallacy of Division Individual parts are like and equal divisions of the wholeIndividual parts are like and equal divisions of the whole and its sister, the Both research and the canons of logic demonstrate that all sopranos or all basses, for instance, are not created equally. Even within the same choir, subject to the same training, they vary according to vocal output.
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  • Fallacy of Division Individual parts are NOT necessarily like and equal divisions of the wholeIndividual parts are NOT necessarily like and equal divisions of the whole Still, choral procedures persist in fallacious thinking:

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