Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) ... with the help of NTPC.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES Volume 5, No 2, 2014 Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0 Research article ISSN 0976 4380 Submitted on August 2014 published on November 2014 275 Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal1, Parmod Bhardwaj2 1-Assistant Professor in Geography, Pt. NRS Govt. College, Rohtak (Haryana) 2-Professor, Department of Geography, M. D. University, Rohtak (Haryana). email@example.com ABSTRACT In the last half decade, rapid urbanization and industrialization have significantly changed the land use/land cover pattern in rural areas, particularly in nearby areas of National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Jharli and its surroundings have also witnessed land acquisition and subsequent rapid industrialization in recent past i.e. from 2004-05 onwards. One such example of planned industries has been the location of Super Thermal Power Plants and allied industries for generation of electricity in Jharli and nearby villages in 2006. This land acquisition and subsequent industrialization has directly affected the land use/land cover in six villages namely Jharli, Mohanbari, Goria, Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan and Wajitpur Tappa Birhor. Present study is based on comparison of land use/land cover of 2004-05 and 2011-12 in these villages. Four major LULC categories like built-up (including industrial, commercial and settlement), agricultural land, water bodies and forest land have been delineated, mapped and compared. It is found that area under agriculture, forest and water bodies has decreased by 28.27, 1.38 and 0.021 percent respectively whereas built up has increased by 29.68 percent. This change further accentuates the problem of shrinking productive agricultural land in NCR of Delhi. Keywords: Geospatial technology, land acquisition and industrialization, land use/land cover change. 1. Introduction Land use/land cover change is a major issue in the course of the regional development in the Metropolitan shadow, in India. National Capital Region (hereinafter referred to as NCR) of Delhi in India has gained economic importance and attracts domestic as well as foreign investment. NCR is the region where the forces of globalization and localization intersect. The cities and regions of NCR have been developing rapidly after the formation of National Capital Region Planning Board in 1985. The main target of this board is to provide balanced development in the region. The anticipation of services and opportunities in this region fuels rapid growth. Industrialization plays a vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Sometimes it has an adverse impact on environment like change in land use/land cover and socio-economic conditions. When the industries increase in the peripheral part of the NCR, haphazard land use is taking its toll on the natural resources at an alarming pace. In order to cope with the pressure of population, every bit of available land has been brought under various types of uses, which put high pressure on the land (Joshi and Nagare, 2009). In the last few decades, reclamation of land for the purpose of industrialization and urbanization has become a common trend in this part of India. Similarly 3731.acres of land has been acquired in study area by state government during 2006 - 2009 for the establishment of power plants, cement and other industries. Besides planned land use/land cover change, many other unplanned changes do occur in this process. Many a times, the planning objectives are failed Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 276due to this unprecedented haphazard growth (Jitendrudu, 2006). Accurate and timely information on these changes are significant for any development. This information helps planners to forecast need of land and other resources for future development plans and their implementation. Similarly for evaluation of existing scheme and future planned development, we need accurate and real time information on this change taking place in land use/land cover both over space and time. Present study investigates such a case of land use/land cover change induced by planned industrialization in Jharli and its surroundings using geospatial technology. 2. Study area: An introduction The study area is located at 92 kms to the west of New Delhi, national capital of India within co-ordinates of latitudes 28 25 30N and 28 30 40 N and longitudes 76 19 10 E and 76 24 10 E. Although this region has been industrially backward but conditions like less productive agricultural land, availability of good transport facilities, cheap labour and helpful government policies are the basic facilitating factors for land acquisition and establishment of industries in this region. Now this region has been developing as a small industrial hub of Haryana for last eight years. To generate electricity, government signed a deal with National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). For this purpose, state government acquired 3731 acres of agricultural and forest land in the Jharli and its surrounding villages namely Jharli, Mohanbari, Goria, Khanpur Khurd, Khanpur Kalan and Wajitpur Tappa Birhor. The government established the Indira Gandhi Super Thermal Power Plant (IGSTPP) in 2006 with the help of NTPC. In 2007, the government made another deal for the establishment of Mahatma Gandhi Super Thermal Power Plant (MGSTPP) near the IGSTPP. After some time, J.K. Laksmi Cement Company Pvt. Ltd. was also established. Besides this other economic activities have also taken place in the study area. Figure 1: Study area Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 2773. Objectives of the study To assess the temporal and spatial changes in land use/land cover due to acquisition of land and establishment of large scale super thermal power plant projects and allied industries in the study area from 2004-05 to 2011-12 using geospatial technologies. 3.1 Data source, softwares and methodology For studying the temporal and spatial changes in land use and land cover, two types of the data have been used. The satellite data used in the study is GeoEye 1 images of 2011-12 (http://earth.google.com). Other spatial data includes topographic sheet no. H43 W6 and H43 W7 at the scale of 1:50000 published by Survey of India, Dehradun, Village Boundary Map of Jharli and its surroundings at the scale of 1:20000 published by Department of Town and Country Planning, Government of Haryana. ERDAS 9.0 software has been used for the Geocoding and Georeferencing of the Toposheets and Village Boundary Maps. ArcGIS 9.3 software has been used to compliment the processing and display of the data. Microsoft word has been used basically for the presentation of the research and Microsoft Excel has been used in producing the statistical diagrams. Ground truthing of land use/land cover has been done using GPS instrument Garmin Oregon 550 T. 4. Results and discussion The study area is spread over 48686324 m. In 2004-05, it is dominated by the agricultural land that covers its 45604110 m area having 93.66 percent share. Other categories like forest land, rural built-up and water bodies have 1643861 m (3.37 percent), 1345739 m (2.76 percent) and 92614 m (0.19 percent) respectively of the study area (Map 2). In 2011-12, area of agricultural land is still higher than others and spread over 315952980 m area having a share of 65.39 percent. Rural built-up occupied over 15794447 m area having a share of 32.44 percent. Other land use/land cover like forest land and water bodies cover 970582 m (1.99 percent) and 82315 m (0.16 percent) area respectively (Map 3 and Table 1). Table 1: Land use/land cover statistics of study area Land use/land Cover Categories 2004-05 2011-12 (2004-05) (2011-12) Area (m) Area (%) Area (m) Area (%) Change Area (m) Change (%) Agricultural Land 45604110 93.67 31838980 65.40 -13765130 -28.27 Forest Land 1643861 3.38 970582 1.99 -673279 -1.38 Water Bodies 92614 0.19 82315 0.17 -10299 -0.02 Built-up Area 1345739 2.76 15794447 32.44 +14448708 +29.68 Total 48686324 100 48686324 100 Source: Statistics derived by the authors from concerned Toposheets and GeoEye 1 images It is evident from Table 1 that there is considerable decrease in the area under agricultural land, forests and water bodies from 2004-05 to 2011-12. Area under rural built-up categories such as settlement, industrial and commercial land is increasing. It shows that the industrial pressure is causing a decline in area under agriculture, forest and water bodies. Figure 4 shows that area under agricultural land has recorded large decline. Agricultural land has recorded a decrease of 13765130 m amounting to 28.27 percent during 2004-05 to 2011-12. Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 278It has been converted in rural built-up i.e. industries, commercial land and settlement with 13113868 m, 175294 m and 475968 m area respectively. Figure 2: Jharli and its surroundings land use land cover 2004-2005 Source: Based on Toposheets of 2004-05 Figure 3: Jharli and its surroundings land use/land cover 2011-2012 Source: Based on GeoEye 1 images Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 279 Figure 4: Showing temporal change in land use/land cover On the other hand, rural built-up has recorded high positive change. It has recorded an increase of 14448708 m area amounting to 29.67 percent. It has consumed 13765130 m, 673279 m and 10299 m area of agricultural land, forest land and water bodies respectively. Besides, area under other categories i.e. forests and water bodies has also decreased. Forest land has decreased by an area of 673279 m (-1.38 percent) due to industrial growth on this land. Water bodies have decreased by an area of 10299 m (-0.02 percent). This part of area has also been converted into industrial land use (Table 2). Table 2: Conversion of land use/land cover 2004-2012 Land use/land cover category Converted into Area (in m) Agricultural Land Industrial 13113867 Agricultural Land Commercial 137676 Agricultural Land Settlement 513587 Agricultural Land Water Logged Land 270710 Forest Industrial 673279 Water body Industrial 10299 Settlement Commercial 37618 Source: Statistics derived by the authors from Figure 5 4.1 Rural built-up The rural built-up category includes non-agricultural activities such as settlement, industrial and commercial area. Area under rural built-up was 1345739 m (2.76 percent of study area) in 2004-05. In this category settlement occupied all area. There was no area under industrial and commercial use at that time i.e. 2004-05 (Table 3). In 2011-12, area under built-up increased to 15794447 m which is 32.44 percent of study area. Two new categories industrial and commercial have come up during this period. Industrial area has become dominant land use and it covers 13797446 m which is 28.34 percent of study area. Settlement has 1865269 m area which is 3.74 percent of study area and it has increased by 475968 m area. Commercial area is smallest among these three categories and it has 131732 m area (0.36 percent). Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 280 Figure 5: Jharli and its surroundings land use/land cover 2011-2012 Source: Based on Toposheets of 2004-05 and GeoEye 1 images of 2011-12 Table 3: Rural Built-up Land use/land Cover Categories 2004-05 2011-12 (2004-05)(2011-12) Area (m) Area (%) Area (m) Area (%) Change Area (m) Change (%) Settlement 1345739 2.76 1821707 3.74 +475968 0.98 Industrial Area -Nil- -Nil- 13797446 28.34 +13797446 28.34 Commercial Area -Nil- -Nil- 175294 0.36 +175294 0.36 Total 1345739 2.76 15794447 32.44 +14448708 29.68 Source: Statistics derived by the authors from Figure 2 and Figure 3. 4.1.1 Settlement Settlement is one of the major land use activity in the study area which occupies an area of 1345739 m and it was 2.76 percent of the study area in 2004-05. There was no planned settlement in the whole study area. These areas are unplanned with less spacing for open areas and roads. In 2011-12, settlements cover a total area of 1821707 m (3.74 percent). From 2004-05 to 2011-12, the settlement area has increased 0.98 percent with 475968 m area. Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 2814.1.2 Industrial area In 2004-05, there was not a single unit of land use in the form of industrial land. In 2011-12, such industrial lands are found in the eastern, central, western and south western part of the study area. Area under industrial category is 13797446 m in 2011-12. It is 28.34 per cent of total study area and 87.37 per cent of total built-up area. Industrial land use has expanded on agricultural land, forest land and water bodies. It has consumed 13113868 m, 673279 m and 10299 m area of agricultural land, forest land and water bodies respectively (Table 2.3). This is a sign that study area is becoming a hub of industrial growth. 4.1.3 Commercial area Jharli and its surrounding regions are rising as a hub of industrial growth as well as commercial growth. Commercial land use is area used predominantly for the sale/purchase of products and services. They often develop with public and semi public or along the main roads/streets. Commercial category includes land under hotels, dhabas, medical stores, other shops etc. In 2004-05, there was not a single unit of land use in the form of commercial land use. But in 2011-12, such commercial land use has emerged in the northern and southern part of the study area. This time, the total share of this type of land in the study area is 175294 m. It is 0.36 per cent of study area and 13.03 per cent of total built-up area in 2011-12. There are only two villages Jharli and Khanpur Khurd in which commercial land use has developed. In Jharli it is 131732 m and in Khanpur Khurd it is 43562 m. Other villages e.g., Mohanbari, Goria, Khanpur Kalan and Wajitpur Tappa Birhor have no area under commercial land use. This land use has mainly emerged on agricultural land. 4.2 Agricultural area It is the land that consists of crops and all types of land capable of doing agriculture, either presently cultivated or fallow land. Waterlogged agricultural land has also been included in this category. The agricultural land is located in all six villages. In 2004-05, the agricultural land in the study area was 45604110 m contributing 93.66 per cent of total area. In the year 2011-12, the agricultural land in the study area was 31838980 m and occupied 65.40 percent of total area. So agricultural land has decreased by 13765130 m area recording a decline of 28.27 percent. Agricultural land has decreased in all villages. Agricultural land has been converted mainly into industrial land use followed by settlement, commercial and water logged area (Table 2). This loss of agricultural land is having impact on occupational composition and other socio-economic attributes of population of study area which necessitates further investigation. In 2004-05, the ground water was at the depth of 30 to 40 feet so there was no water logged agricultural land in whole study area. But after the establishment of thermal power plants, many large water tanks were made in these plants. Due to sinking of water from tanks a large part of agricultural land has become waterlogged. Such type of land is increasing continuously since 2010. 4.3 Forest area Forest is a biological unit having a vast social organization of living communities at work. These forest communities have a vital role in maintaining an eco-system. In 2004-05, the forest cover has a total area of 1643861m which is 3.38 per cent of study area. In 2011-12, Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 282the forest cover has a total area of 970582 m which is 1.99 percent of study area. So it was reduced to 970582 m and recorded a decline of 673279 m. Forest land has decreased because of land acquired for industrial zones. It becomes more important because already there is serious shortage of forest in this region. 4.4 Water bodies The water bodies include both natural and man-made water features namely lakes, ponds, tanks and reservoirs. In 2004-05, the total area under water bodies was 92614 m which was 0.19 percent of study area. In 2011-12, the water bodies cover a total area of 82315 m which is 0.17 percent of total study area. So during this period it decreased to 82315 m recording a 10299 m. Water bodies decreased due to the industrialization process in the study area. 5. Conclusion and suggestions Planned land acquisition and subsequent industrialization is putting tremendous pressure on agricultural land use of study area. Present study finds that major change due to industrialization has occurred in agricultural land. This issue becomes more important because land acquisition and industrialization on agricultural land has been an issue of political debate and unrest in national capital region and other parts in India. It not only involves loss of agricultural land but also depleting the scarce vegetation cover in the region. It further involves the issue of proper rehabilitation of people affected by land acquisition and subsequent industrialization. It has been found that share of agricultural land in study area has decreased from 93.67 percent (2004-05) to 65.40 percent (2011-12).The second important loss has been recorded in forest cover. It has decreased from 3.38 percent (2004-05) to 1.99 percent (2011-12).Though the decrease is small but it becomes serious because the region has very scarce vegetation and any further decrease may have serious ecological consequences. So quick afforestation drive should be taken up immediately. Another important issue is water logging of agricultural area in vicinity of thermal plants. Strict measures should be taken up to stop the seepage of water from water tanks of the plants. Geospatial technologies have proved very useful in detecting change in land use/land cover and generation of accurate and real time information of study area. Frequent mapping of land use/ land cover must be done using these technologies for proper evaluation and implementation of development plans. 6. References 1. Arunachalam,S., Maharani,K., Chidambaram,S., Prasanna, M.V., Manivel, M,. and Thivya, C, (2011), A study on the land use pattern change along the coastal region of Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 1(4), pp 700-720. 2. Bhagawat, R., (2011), Application of Remote Sensing and GIS, Land Use/Land Cover Change in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, pp 80-86. Policy induced land use/land cover change: a case study of industrial development at Jharli and its surroundings in Haryana (India) Salesh Kalkal and Parmod Bhardwaj International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 5 Issue 2, 2014 2833. Kaliraj, S., and Malar, V. K., (2012), Geospatial analysis to assess the potential site for coal based thermal power station in Gujarat, India, Advances in Applied Science Research, 3(3), pp 1554-1562. 4. Jitendrudu, L.R.B., (2006), Modeling Dynamics of Urban Spatial Growth Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, M. Tech Thesis, IIRS, Dehradun. 5. Joshi, Veena U.,and Vikas Nagare, (2009), Land Use Change Detection along the Pravara River Basin in Maharashtra, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, AGD Landscape and Environment, 3(2), pp 71-86. 6. Prakasam, C., (2010), Land use and land cover change detection through remote sensing approach: A case study of Kodaikanal Taluk, Tamil nadu, International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 1(2), pp 150-158. 7. Ramachandra, T. V.,and Bharath H. Aithal, (2012), Land Use Dynamics at Padubidri, Udupi District with the Implementation of Large Scale Thermal Power Project, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 5(03), pp 409-417.
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