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  • 1

    Paraphrasing

    What is Paraphrasing?

  • 2

    Text Plagiarism Video #

    1.

    Text Plagiarism Video

    #2.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snmJj03R7EA&NR=1%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5goiAeZn-g&feature=related%20%20%20%20ANIMATED%0D%0Dhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w5goiAeZn-g&feature=related%20%20%20%20ANIMATED%0D%0D

  • 3

    Paraphrase

    Paraphrase: A paraphrase is an important part of writing a paper. Simply put the

    paraphrase is when you read another authors work and put it into your own words. It

    is also considered paraphrasing when you use statistics and research from another

    source. This is the most common citation in a paper. Proper paraphrasing is an art.

    This does not mean changing a few words around. It means taking the authors ideas,

    summarizing them into your own words and then using them. Of course you must cite

    every paraphrase with an in line citation. Paraphrases are mostly used to summarize

    paragraphs and main themes. Paraphrases are also used to cite statistics and other

    information. YOU DO NOT USE QUOTATION MARKS WHEN

    PARAPHRASING.

    Remember

  • 4

    Examples of Paraphrasing Paraphrase:

    How much higher skyscrapers of the future will

    rise than worlds tallest building, the Sears

    Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as

    tall is already on the boards, and an architect,

    Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have

    sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with

    over 500 stories (Bachman 15).

    Note the following. The writer never uses the

    exact words of the author therefore there is no

    need to use quotation marks. The writer

    summarizes, uses his or her own words and then

    cites the source at the end. Sometimes a

    paraphrase will be large and must be broken up.

    A good rule of thumb is to break up a paragraph

    that is completely paraphrased into two or three

    citations. The writer has given credit to the

    author and thus has avoided plagiarism. Now the

    author would just continue writing after double

    spacing.

    Original Text: (From Ron Bachman,

    "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990):

    15.)

    While the Sears Tower is arguably the

    greatest achievement in skyscraper

    engineering so far, it's unlikely that

    architects and engineers have abandoned

    the quest for the world's tallest building.

    The question is: Just how high can a

    building go? Structural engineer William

    LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper

    nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as

    the Sears Tower. And architect Robert

    Sobel claims that existing technology

    could produce a 500-story building.

    Here is a sample paraphrase:

  • 5

    What It Looks Like Note the following. The writer never uses the exact words of the author therefore there is no need

    to use quotation marks. The writer summarizes, uses his or her own words and then cites the

    source at the end. Sometimes a paraphrase will be large and must be broken up. A good rule of

    thumb is to break up a paragraph that is completely paraphrased into two or three citations. The

    writer has given credit to the author and thus has avoided plagiarism. Now the author would just

    continue writing after double spacing.

    Your paper will more or less be paraphrase after paraphrase linked together by your own words

    and analysis. You need to introduce, analyze and put into context the paraphrases you use. This

    is the nature of the research paper, after all, you are not the expert, they are. If you cite from the

    same author in the very next citation you do not have to put the authors last name in the in line

    citation, just the page number.

    Example:

    How much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise than worlds tallest building, the Sears

    Tower, is unknown. The design of one twice as tall is already on the boards, and an architect,

    Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500

    stories (Bachman 15). As a matter of fact the architect William LeMessurier claims he designed

    a skyscraper that is over a half a mile tall (15).

  • 6

    Citing Sources

    Citing Sources: Most high schools use the MLA (Modern Language Association)

    format.

  • 7

    Direct Quote

    Direct Quote: A direct quote is when you use another persons words directly in your

    paper. Knowing when to use a direct quote is important. Do not quote everything you

    want to say. Most things should be paraphrased. Use a direct quote when you want

    the reader to read an important historical line or it is something someone said that is

    important. Use direct quotes sparingly, there should only be a few in the paper and

    they better be good ones. The key difference in citing a direct quote is that you must

    put quotation marks around the sentence and then cite at the end. IF YOU FAIL TO

    USE QUOTATION MARKS AROUND A DIRECT QUOTE YOU ARE SAYING

    YOU WROTE THE SENTENCE. THIS IS PLAGIARISM!!!

    Text

  • 8

    Citing a Direct Quote

    Citing a direct quote uses the same form as citing a paraphrase. The differences is that you are using

    someone else's words directly. In order to avoid plagiarism you MUST USE QUOTATION MARKS

    unless the direct quote is over four lines.

    Here is a sample direct quote:

    Original Text: (From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990):17.

    "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it

    exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean

    water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings

    help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is

    now threatened by human activity."

    Direct Quote:

    The importance of the sea to the environment of the earth cannot be underestimated. "The Antarctic

    is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts

    tremendous control on our climate (Cousteau 17)."

    Note the following. The first sentence is neither a paraphrase or a quote. It is the writers own words.

    The writer is introducing and placing the Cousteau quote into context.

  • 9

    Direct Quote Over Four Lines :

    Use these VERY RARELY. A great speech or famous quote might justify using a direct quote over four lines. To do this skip

    a line, indent five spaces on both sides of the quote, single space and use italics. Place the citation on the next line to the

    lower right of the quote. Go to the next line and then continue with your paper. DO NOT USE QUOTATION MARKS.

    Example:

    Abraham Lincoln said in his famous Gettysburg Address:

    It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take

    increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these

    dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of

    the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

    (Winthrop 67)

    What Lincoln was saying was that those that died had died for a cause. They had died to preserve the Union and to keep the

    United States together (67 - 68).

    Note the following. The long quote follows the format prescribed above. The quote is also followed by a paraphrase from the

    same author. The citation is the name of the book you found the quote in, not the name of the writer of the quote, if they are

    different. You must however say who made the quote in prefacing or concluding use of the quote.

    When the book has no author use a keyword from the title. Usually the first word in the citation. When there are two book by

    the same author designate one as book one and the other as book two. For example: (Winthrop1 282) and (Winthrop2 58-71).

  • 10

    Works Cited Page

    Works Cited Page: This is the last page of your paper where you list, using the format

    shown below, all the books, articles, web sites, SIRS articles, magazines articles, etc.

    you have used. This must be done in the proper format.

    All of this information was created by:

    http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Research_Paper_Form

    at.htm

    http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Research_Paper_Format.htm http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Research_Paper_Format.htm

  • 11

    Taking Notes

    Your research note cards should include all the information necessary to write your term paper. You

    should take extreme care as you create these note cards.

    1. Start with a fresh pack of research note cards. Large, lined cards are probably best, especially

    if you want to make your own detailed personal notes. Also consider color coding your cards by

    topic to keep your paper organized from the start.

    2. Devote an entire note card to each idea or note. Don't try to fit two sources (quote

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