Ocean Bottom. The Water Planet Global ocean is consists of all the oceans on the Earth A sea is a smaller body of ocean water that may be surrounded by.
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<ul><li><p>Ocean Bottom</p></li><li><p>The Water PlanetGlobal ocean is consists of all the oceans on the EarthA sea is a smaller body of ocean water that may be surrounded by land</p></li><li><p>OceanographyOceanography began when Matthew Maury aboard the HMS Challenger explored the oceans with limited technology from 1872-1876.Today with modern technology ships like the JOIDES Resolution and the CHIKYU, both drill the ocean bottom finding out more about the workings of plate tectonics and sediment of the ocean.</p></li><li><p>SonarSound Navigation and Ranging is a system that uses sound to determine the depth and features of the ocean bottom. Side scan radar is used to map the bottom of the oceanUnder water Submersibles are used to explore the depth, some with robots to collect samples.</p></li><li><p>Continental slope is at the edge of the continental shelf where the sea floor may plunge steeply 4-5 kilometersMarks the boundary between the continental crust and the oceanic crust</p></li><li><p>Continental rise is the area between the continental slope and the ocean floorIt is made of sediments that wash down from the continental shelfTurbidity current carry large amounts of these sediments in masses of moving water, it is like an underwater avalanche</p></li><li><p>Submarine canyons are deep V shaped valleys cut through the continental shelf and slope</p></li><li><p>Features of the Ocean Floor</p></li><li><p>Abyssal PlainLarge flat areas on the bottom of the oceanAtlantic and Indian oceans have largest abyssal plains because almost all the worlds major rivers flow into them producing a large amount of sediment deposits in the plains</p></li><li><p>Seamounts and GuyotsSeamounts are underwater volcanic mountainsThey have steep sides and narrow summits and rise more than 1000 meters above the sea floorWhen seamounts rise above the surface of the ocean they become islandsGuyots are seamounts that do not rise to a peak or have eroded tops</p></li><li><p>Mid-ocean RidgesLargest mountain ranges on the EarthThese are formed where the plates are pulling apartRift valleys run along the middle of the mid-ocean ridges</p></li><li><p>TrenchesThe deepest part of the ocean found along edges of sea floorLong narrow crevices that can be 11,000 meters deepDeepest trench is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean that is more than 11,000 meters deep</p></li><li><p>Hydrothermal VentsOpenings into the mantle of the Earth where sea water seeps down and returns to the ocean</p></li><li><p>ReefsReefs are large masses and ridges of limestone rocks produced by the shells of animalsThere are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs touch the shoreline of a volcanic island</p></li><li><p>Coral Reefs (cont)Barrier reefs that are separated from the shore by an area of shallow water called a lagoon</p></li><li><p>Coral Reefs (cont)And an atoll that is a ring of coral reef that surrounded an island that has been worn away or sunk</p></li><li><p>Properties of Ocean WaterOcean water is a mixture of gases and solids dissolved in pure waterOceanographers believe that ocean water contains all of the natural elements found on EarthAll but 5 have been found</p></li><li><p>Gases in Ocean WaterNitrogen, carbon dioxide (60 times more than in atmosphere), and oxygen are the most abundant gasses found in ocean water cold water has more dissolved gases in itOxygen and carbon dioxide are essential for plant growthThere is more gas found at the surface of the water where plant growth occurs</p></li><li><p>Gases and Ocean FactsColder temperatures hold more gas.The ocean contains 60 times more carbon that the atmosphere does.The oceans are the most important factor in regulating climate.</p></li><li><p>Salts in Ocean WaterSalinity is the amount of dissolved salts in ocean waterSodium Chloride is the most common saltAverage salinity of the ocean is 35 o/ooSalt comes from volcanic activity, erosion of the land, and wave erosion of beaches </p><p>Sea saltsParts per Thousandchloride19.3 o/oosodium10.7 o/oosulfate2.7 o/oomagnesium1.3 o/oocalcium0.4 o/oopotassium0.4 o/oobicarbonate0.15 o/oobromide0.07 o/ooother0.06 o/ooTotal Salinity35.08 o/oo</p></li><li><p>SalinitySalinity can be greater or less than the average of 35 o/ooLower salinity where freshwater rivers enter the oceanSalinity is higher where there is greater evaporation and in polar regions where only fresh water freezesAnimals using certain salts to build their shells can lower salinity</p></li><li><p>Deep Cold WaterCold water holds more gas than warm waterWhen the colder denser water sinks to the bottom it carries oxygen rich water that aids in the survival of deep water species </p></li><li><p>Temperature of Ocean WaterThe sun is the major source of heat for the oceanSurface zone -100-300 meters deep, temperature fairly constant, waves and surface winds mix the water and transfer the heat downward</p></li><li><p>Temperatures (cont)Thermocline- found directly under the surface zone, temperature drops rapidly, less dense warm water floats on top of the more dense cold water</p></li><li><p>Temperature (cont)Deep zone- has extremely cold water, extends from the thermocline to depths of 4000 meters or more, temperature decreases only slightlyTemperature below 1500 meters is only 4</p></li><li><p>TemperatureThe three ocean zones are not found in the Arctic or AntarcticThe surface temperatures are always very cold</p></li><li><p>Density and ColorThe density of the water gets greater the deeper and colder the water is.Blue wavelengths of light are reflectedPhytoplankton can affect the color of the ocean can show the health of the ocean</p></li><li><p>UpwellingThe movement of deep, cold, and nutrient rich water to the surface to support life.</p></li><li><p>Ocean Life ZonesPlant and animal life in the ocean is affect by three factors: amount of sunlight, temperature, and pressurePlants and animals can be classified into three major groups according to their habitats of the water in which they live</p></li><li><p>PlanktonLargest group of animals and plants that float at or near the surfaceThese get the most sunlightFound at depths of 1 to 200 meters deepVery small organisms (plankton that whales eat)</p></li><li><p>NektonContains all forms of organisms that swim aroundThey can actively search for food, prey or predatorsThese are found in all areas of the ocean</p></li><li><p>BenthosOrganisms that live on the ocean floorBenthic plants live in shallow water so they can get the necessary sunlightOysters, crabs, starfish are all benthicSome even live in the deepest parts of the ocean</p></li><li><p>Ocean Environments (Zones)The classification of the ocean into life zones is based on the conditions of the ocean-conditions that vary widely</p></li><li><p>Intertidal Zone (Benthic Zone)The region that lies between low and high tideOrganisms must be able to live without water some of the timeThey must find someway to attach so they are not washed out when tide goes outIncludes anemones, crabs, mussels, and plants</p></li><li><p>Neritic Zone (Pelagic Zone)Extends from the low tide line to the edge of the continental shelfDepth of about 200 metersReceives plenty of sunshinePressure is low and temperature is constantPlankton, nekton, and benthos plants and animals are found hereRiches part of the sea: contains fish, clams, snails, some smaller whales, and lobstersMuch of the seafood we eat is found here!</p></li><li><p>Open-Ocean ZonesBathyal zone begins at the continental slope and ends about 2000 metersSunlight cannot penetrate to the bottomSquid, octopus, and large whales are found hereAbyssal zone extends to over 6000 metersNo sunlight can penetrate, high pressure and low temperaturesMost animals are small and strange!</p></li><li><p>*</p></li></ul>
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