Ocean Water and Ocean Life
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DESCRIPTIONOcean Water and Ocean Life. Chapter 15. Salinity. The total amount of solid material dissolved in water. Measured in Parts Per Thousand ( ppt ) Average Ocean Salinity = 35 Most of the salt in seawater is NaCl , or common table salt. Where did the salt come from??. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Ocean Water and Ocean Life
Ocean Water and Ocean LifeChapter 15
SalinityThe total amount of solid material dissolved in water.Measured in Parts Per Thousand (ppt )Average Ocean Salinity = 35Most of the salt in seawater is NaCl, or common table salt.
Where did the salt come from??Chemical weathering and erosion of rocks and minerals.Earths interior:Gases emitted into the air by volcanoes throughout geologic history
Processes that Affect SalinityLess saltyPrecipitationRunoffMelting iceMore saltyEvaporationFormation of ice
Temperature and ThermoclineOcean temperature is highest at the surface. Thermocline- the layer of ocean water where there is a rapid change of temperature with depth.Creates a vertical barrier for ocean life.
DensityMass per volume unitMass VolumeAffects waters vertical position.Factors that affect density:SalinityTemperature
Ocean LayersMixed Zone water is mixed by waves and circulation currents and tides
Transitional Zone temperature falls abruptly
Deep Zone Little to no sunlight. Density is the same as well as temperature.
Classification of Marine Organisms Classified by where they live and how they move.Plankton: float or drift with ocean currents.Nekton: free swimmers found in all area of the ocean.Benthos: Live on ocean floor
Marine Life Zone FactorsAvailability of sunlight.Distance from shoreWater depth
Photic vs. Aphotic zonesPhotos=lightPhotic Zone: upper part of the ocean where light can penetrate.Euphotic: portion of the photic zone where there is enough light to support photosynthesis.Aphotic Zone: no sunlightDeep ocean
Distance from shoreIntertidal zones:Area where land and ocean meet and overlap.Neritic Zone: Seaward from the low-tide line to the continental shelf break.Oceanic Zone-Beyond the continental shelf.
Depth of OceanPelagic ZoneOpen ocean of any depth.Benthic zoneAny sea-bottom surface at any distance from shore.Abyssal zoneDeep area with high pressure zones, low temps and low oxygen levels.
Ocean ProductivityPrimary Productivity is the production of organic compounds from inorganic substances .Photosynthesis- uses light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose.Chemosynthesis- uses chemical energy to create organic molecules from inorganic nutrients.
Factors that Affect a Regions Photosynthetic ProductivityAvailability of nutrients
Amount of solar radiation/sunlight.
Productivity in the OceansProductivity in Polar OceansProductivity in Tropical OceansProductivity in Temperate OceansHigh amounts of nutrientsSmall amounts of nutrientsWinter: Low productivity. Days are short and sun angle is highSmall amounts of sunlightHigh amounts of sunlightSpring: Phytoplankton quickly depleted. Productivity is limited.Summer: Strong thermocline develops so surface nutrients are not replaced.Fall: Nutrients are near surface when waters are being mixed due to winds.Trophic LevelsA trophic level is a nourishment level in a food chain.
Food Chain vs. Food WebFood Chain: sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, starting with the primary producer.
Food Web: group of interrelated food chains