Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students

Download Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students

Post on 01-Apr-2015

219 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Nuclear Chemistry Slide 2 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students will be able to compare properties of nuclear reactions with chemical reactions. Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through application and graphing. Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries. Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced. Slide 3 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactive decay. Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through applications and graphing. Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced. Slide 4 Atomic Structure: 3.12 Due: Band of Stability Worksheet (part A) Infinite Campus Check-up Assignment Objectives: I can distinguish between atomic models. I can use the band of stability graph to understand what a radioisotope is and to classify atoms as radioisotopes. I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through applications and graphing. Slide 5 Bell Ringer: 3.12 1. What problem did scientists have with Rutherfords Nuclear Model below? Explain your answer. 2. On the Nuclear Band of Stability Worksheet, complete part b. (plotting) and questions 1-4. Slide 6 Bell Ringer: Evolution of Atom Who is given credit for the earliest model of the because he applied the scientific method? What did Thomsons model contribute to the atom? What did Rutherfords model contribute to the atom? What did Bohrs model contribute to the atom? What did the Quantum Mechanical model contribute to the atom? Slide 7 Types of electron paths around nucleus Slide 8 Atomic Models Daltons Atomic Model Thomsons Plum Pudding Model Rutherfords Nuclear Model Bohrs Planetary Model Schrodingers Atomic Model (current model) Slide 9 Bell Ringer: 3.12 1. What problem did scientists have with Rutherfords Nuclear Model below? Explain your answer. 2. On the Nuclear Band of Stability Worksheet, complete part b. (plotting) and questions 1-4. Slide 10 What keeps the protons within the nucleus ? (Like particles repel each other) Neutrons stabilize the nucleus by separating the protons from one antoher. 1932 - James Chadwick discovers that the nucleus also has neutral particles present. He called them neutrons. Subatomic Particle: Neutron Slide 11 Bell Ringer: 3.12 1. What problem did scientists have with Rutherfords Nuclear Model below? Explain your answer. 2. On the Nuclear Band of Stability Worksheet, complete part b. (plotting) and questions 1-4. Slide 12 Atomic Structure: 3.13 Due: Infinite Campus Check-up Assignment (over due) Complete Nuclear Band of Stability Graph Radioactivity Article Objectives: Atomic Structure and Theory Quiz I can use the band of stability graph to understand what a radioisotope is and to classify atoms as radioisotopes. I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through applications and graphing. Slide 13 Nuclear Band of Stability Worksheet Slide 14 Radioisotopes Use your band of stability graph to answer the following questions. Analysis Questions: 1. What is a radioisotope? 2. What subatomic particles determine if an atom is a radioisotope? 3. True or False: Most atoms have a stable nucleus if it has an equal number of protons and neutrons. Explain your answer using your graph. Slide 15 Nuclear Band of Stability Slide 16 http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Atomica/Table/lessons/11nuclear/nuclear.h tm Slide 17 Also called: radioactivity; nuclear reactions A reaction that occurs within the nucleus of a radioisotope in order to stabilize it. Spontaneous Reactions Reaction rates (speed of reactions) remain constant for radioisotopes despite changes in temperature, pressure, or addition of catalyst. Radioactive Decay Slide 18 Atomic Structure: 3.14 Due: Infinite Campus Check-up Assignment (over due) Complete Nuclear Band of Stability Graph(over due) Radioactivity Article (over due) Objectives: I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and word problems. Slide 19 Radioactive Decay: Half-Life 1.What is half-life? 2.Why is the half-life of a radioisotope very important to many disciplines of science? Slide 20 Radioactive Decay: Half-Life Half-Life: The time it takes for half of a radioisotope sample (parent isotope) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope). Slide 21 Radioactive Decay Lab Purpose: Simulate and graph the radioactive decay of an artificial radioisotope, M&amp;Mium. Complete the pre-lab questions and hypothesis. thefoxisblack.com usd314.k12.ks.us Slide 22 Atomic Structure: 3.14 Homework: Complete M&amp;Mium lab and radioactive decay problems. Slide 23 Atomic Structure: 3.17 Due: Radioactive Decay (M&amp;Mium) Lab Radioisotopes and Radioactive Decay Packet Objectives: I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and word problems. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. Slide 24 Radioactive Decay Lab Purpose: Simulate and graph the radioactive decay of an artificial radioisotope, M&amp;Mium. Complete the pre-lab questions and hypothesis. thefoxisblack.com usd314.k12.ks.us Slide 25 Radioactive Decay Lab: Data Table Number of Half- Lives Total Time (seconds) # of M&amp;Miums (parent isotope) Daughter Isotope (decayed) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slide 26 Radioactive Decay Graph astronomy.nmsu.edu Slide 27 Radioactive Decay Problems 1.a. A patient is given a 100 mg sample of I-131. How much of the isotope will remain in the body after 16 days? The half-life of I-131 isotopes is 8 days. b. How many days will pass for a 1.0g sample of I-131 isotope to decay to 0.25g? Slide 28 Nuclear Radiation 1. According to the article you read, what is nuclear radiation? 2.Who discovered nuclear radiation? 3.How have humans used nuclear radiation? Slide 29 Atomic Structure: 3.14 Due: Infinite Campus Check-up Assignment (over due) Complete Nuclear Band of Stability Graph(over due) Radioactivity Article (over due) Objectives: I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and word problems. Slide 30 Atomic Structure: 3.19 Due: Radioactive Decay (M&amp;Mium) Lab Radioisotopes and Radioactive Decay Packet Objectives: I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and word problems. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. Slide 31 Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Radiation: Matter and large amounts of energy produced during a nuclear reaction. Three main types of nuclear radiation: 1.Alpha radiation ( ) 2.Beta radiation () 3.Gamma radiation () Slide 32 Nuclear Radiation paper wood concrete or lead Types of radiation can be classified by type of shielding. (alpha particle) (beta particle) (gamma particle) Slide 33 Types of Nuclear Radiation Types of radiation can be classified by their charges. Slide 34 Alpha ( ) Radiation parent decays + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) change in mass number: change in atomic number: Slide 35 Beta () Radiation particle change in mass number: change in atomic number: transmutation occur? Slide 36 Gamma () Radiation parent decays + daughter isotope + isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) ++ change in mass number: change in atomic number: transmutation occur? Slide 37 Transmutation Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. What must happen in the nucleus for a transmutation to occur? Does a transmutation occur during alpha, beta, and gamma reactions? Slide 38 Atomic Structure: 3.20 Infinite Campus Update: Evolution of the Atom packet (10pts.) Kandium Lab(27pts.) Band of Stability Worksheet (10pts.) Radioactive Decay Lab (23pts.) Objectives: I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and calculations. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. Slide 39 Slide 40 Nuclear Reaction Types Slide 41 Atomic Structure: 3.24 Due: Nuclear Decay Worksheet Objectives: I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and calculations. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. Review atomic structure/theory and nuclear reactions study guide via gallery walk. Homework: Review Study Guide-Test tomorrow. Slide 42 Nuclear Reaction Worksheet Slide 43 Nuclear Band of Stability Slide 44 Slide 45 Atomic Structure: 3.20 Due: Nuclear Decay Worksheet Objectives: I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and calculations. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. Review atomic structure/theory and nuclear reactions study guide via gallery walk. Slide 46 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Reaction Study Guides Review concepts via gallery walk. Slide 47 Radioactivity Decay Review Wksht. Key 4a. I-131 b. C-14 c. U-238 5.No, only 75% of parent isotope decays, still 25% remaining. 6.1 million radioactive atoms 7.a.0.625 mg of I-131 remaining b. 24 days 8 a. 20% b. about 85 grams c. about 83 days d. about 28 days 9. 915 B.C. Slide 48 Atomic Structure: 3.20 Due: Nuclear Decay Worksheet Objectives: I can classify and predict the products of nuclear reactions. I can demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through modeling, graphing, and calculations. I can distinguish between the three types of nuclear radiation. Review atomic structure/theory and nuclear reactions study guide via gallery walk. Slide 49 Nuclear Chemistry Quiz-Review Slide 50 Transmutation Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. How else could you define transmutation? What must happen in the nucleus for a transmutation to occur? Does a transmutation occur when alpha, beta, or gamma radiation is produced? Slide 51 Transmutation parent decays + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. A parent isotope is converted to daughter isotope An unstable atom converted to a more stable atom. Atomic number changes during radioactive decay Slide 52 Nuclear Chemistry Objective Students can explain the difference between fission and fusion. Students can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy Slide 53 Transmutation Transmutation occurs during: 1. Radioactive Decay 2. Bombarding an atoms nucleus with particles. -can occur naturally or artificially -fission and fusion nuclear reactions Slide 54 Fission vs. Fusion FissionFusion Similarities Slide 55 Nuclear Fission Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus by bombarding it with neutrons. cikguwong.blogspot.com chm.bris.ac.uk Slide 56 Nuclear Fission Application chm.bris.ac.ukenglish-online.at Generates electricity where only steam is released into the environment. Slide 57 Nuclear Fission Problem Nuclear Waste: Spent fuel rods must be disposed of properly. (pg. 812 in text) On-site or off-site holding tanks called pools. coto2.wordpress.com Slide 58 Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fusion Small radioisotope nuclei combine. mrbarlow.wordpress.com Slide 59 Nuclear Fusion Produces immense amount of energy. Does not produce nuclear waste Applications? Not yet. Requires immense amount of energy. Example: sun (40,000,000 0 C) scienceknowledge.org Slide 60 Slide 61 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries. Assessment by: -reading and annotating literature that addresses pros and cons of nuclear energy. -Debating with peers why we should or should not depend on nuclear energy. -Formulating an opinion based on facts as to why the U.S. should continue to support the research and development of nuclear energy. (ORQ format) Slide 62 Exit Slip 1. What is the difference between fission and fusion and give an example of each? 2. Should the United States continue the research, development, and application of nuclear energy through nuclear fission? Slide 63 Nuclear Chemistry Objective I can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy. (SC-H-ET-S-2) Slide 64 Nuclear Energy Debate breakthrougheurope.org Slide 65 Slide 66 Slide 67 Slide 68 earth-policy.org Slide 69 firstlab.webege.com Slide 70 Slide 71 Nuclear Energy www.nukepills.com Slide 72 Slide 73 Chernobyl,Ukraine Nuclear Disaster Effects Slide 74 Fukushima, Japan Disaster Effects novinite.com guardian.co.uknucleaire11.wordpress.com uncannyterrain.com business.financialpost.com Slide 75 Gallery Walk: Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons Each debate group record on chart paper important pros and cons you addressed today. Walk around and observe what other debate groups discussed. Slide 76 Exit Slip: Nuclear Energy 1.Did todays nuclear energy debate strengthen or weaken your view on this issue? 2.What is your view on this issue now: Should the U.S. continue to support the research, development, and application of nuclear energy? *Make sure to validate your view with several supporting facts. * </p>