Nautilus Bulletin 1

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<ul><li><p> </p><p>NautilusBulletin #1</p></li><li><p>The Arthur Jones Collection</p><p>Nautilus Bulletin #1 </p><p>1An Introduction and a Brief Background</p><p>While the author may be widely known in the field of physical training only as a result of the recentlyannounced developments which are the subject of this Bulletin, quite a number of readers will probablyrecognize the name in connection with another field since, for the past fourteen years, motion-picturesproduced by the author have been in constant distribution throughout the world. Included in these credits werethe following series of films produced for television, "Professional Hunter," "Wild Cargo," "Capture," "Call ofthe Wild," and major portions of four other series, as well as several theatrical and special films for television.The most recent film produced by the author was seen on CBS network on Friday, August 28, 1970 at 7:30 inthe evening titled "Free to Live: Operation Elephant," a one-hour, color special on a major conservationproject, the capture and relocation of African elephants.</p><p>Before becoming involved in film production, the author was an airline pilot and conducted a large-scaleimport-export business in wild animals, birds, reptiles and tropical fish an occupation which eventually led tothe production of films based on conservation themes.</p><p>Eight members of the author's family father, mother, brother, sister, paternal grandfather, uncle, cousin andbrother-in-law are medical doctors; or were, when still living. And the author has devoted a great deal of timeto research programs in closely related areas work dealing with both wild animals and human subjects.</p><p>Such work in the field of weight-training dates back approximately thirty years and while such research hascertainly not been constant for that period of time, several years were spent in such studies; with, until veryrecently, no thought regarding the commercial possibilities that might result.</p><p>As recently as a year ago, it was the author's intention to publish the results of his experimental work in thisfield without taking credit under his own name; Bill Pearl was primarily responsible for causing a change ofplans in that regard. He said, ". . . if you don't take credit under your own name, somebody will try to steal thecredit for anything worthwhile that you have produced."</p><p>Since no commercial considerations were involved in the development of the new Nautilus training equipment,absolutely no publicity was given to this research program until long after everybody involved was satisfiedwith the results that were being consistently produced by a high percentage of the trainees using this equipmentin experimental training programs; and as a natural result, many people are probably left feeling that the recentlyannounced results are based upon hasty conclusions whereas, in fact, the background of research data uponwhich these conclusions are based is literally enormous.</p><p>Secondly, since there is really no practical ground upon which a reasonable comparison between the newequipment and previously-existing types of conventional training equipment can be based, it is extremelydifficult to even attempt to draw such comparisons.</p></li><li><p>The Arthur Jones Collection</p><p>Nautilus Bulletin #1 </p><p>How, for example could you fairly compare the barbell to any type of training equipment that existedpreviously? By comparison to any earlier equipment intended for the same purpose, the barbell was literally agreat leap forward, a major breakthrough, capable of producing more in the way of muscular mass and/orstrength increases in a few months than any other method of training could produce in a lifetime.</p><p>And not the same sort of breakthrough has occurred again; and just as the barbell was an almost completedeparture from earlier types of equipment, the Nautilus equipment is also something entirely new. Nautilusmachines are not an improvement in equipment'; instead, they represent a new approach to the whole idea ofprogressive weight-training.</p><p>Rather than attempting to design exercises based on the use of conventional training equipment, the problemwas approached from an entirely different direction; totally new equipment was designed to meet the needs ofhuman muscular structures.</p><p>And in many respects, that was one of the most difficult parts of the problem; since it was first essential toestablish just what was required for stimulating increases in muscular size and strength. And since very little inthe way of serious work has been done in this field by the scientific community, there was almost nothing torefer to for guidance.</p><p>High degrees of results were obviously being produced by training with barbells and conventional pulleydevices, but there was certainly nothing even approaching agreement insofar as the best method of training wasconcerned.</p><p>The production of any given result regardless of how spectacular it may appear proves nothing beyond theability of a particular method to produce a certain result, eventually; and it certainly does not follow that thesame degree of results could not have been produced by some other method.</p><p>So, rather obviously, in the almost complete lack of anything dependable in the way of guidelines, it wasnecessary to study the physics of both conventional forms of exercise and the functions of muscular structures.</p><p>In the following chapters, a brief non-technical outline of the basic physics involved will be attempted; butsince this is actually a rather complicated subject, it must be remembered that a full explanation is impossiblewithin the limits of length that must be observed in this bulletin.</p><p>For those who might be interested in greater details, a much longer account, a book titled "The UltimateDevelopment," by the same author, will be available, in a few months. In a total of 99 chapters, the subject ofphysical training is covered in detail.</p></li><li><p>The Arthur Jones Collection</p><p>Nautilus Bulletin #1</p><p>2Basic Physics of Conventional</p><p>Exercise Methods</p><p>Almost all conventional exercises are based upon resistance provided by gravity; but even when springs areused as a form of resistance, the result is much the same such resistance is uni-directional. And while it ispossible, with the use of pulleys, to control the direction of resistance it still remains almost impossible toprovide resistance in more than one direction while using conventional training equipment.</p><p>There are a few exercises involving conventional equipment that can be performed in such a manner that thislimitation regarding the direction of resistance can be overcome at least for all practical purposes; but sincethese exercises form the subject of a later chapter, I will ignore them for the moment.</p><p>This limitation in direction of resistance is probably the greatest limiting factor affecting most exercises; since itthus becomes impossible to involve more than a small percentage of the total number of fibers contained in aparticular muscular structure in any conventional exercise.</p><p>Because, while the resistance is provided in only one direction, the involved body parts are rotating; in effect,you are trying to oppose a rotational form of movement with a reciprocal form of resistance an obviousimpossibility. Impossible, at least, with conventional training equipment.</p><p>While performing a curl, for example, the movement is rotational throughout a range-of-movement ofapproximately 160 degrees; at the start of the curl, the movement is almost perfectly horizontal, straight forward at about the midpoint, the movement is vertical, straight up at the end, the movement is approximatelyhorizontal again, but in the opposite direction.</p><p>Yet, during the entire movement, the resistance was always vertical, straight down. Thus, in practice, althoughthe resistance remains constant, it seems to become heavier as the movement progresses from the startingposition to the midpoint and after the midpoint, seems to become lighter. In the normal finishing position ofthe curl, there is literally no resistance having reached that point, it is then possible to hold that positionalmost indefinitely, with absolutely no work being demanded on the part of the bending muscles of the upperarms.</p><p>This occurs because during a curl the moment-arm of the weight is constantly changing as the movementprogresses; DIRECT resistance is provided only at the infinitely-small point where resistance is being movedvertically.</p><p>A careful scrutiny of conventional exercises will clearly show that this is almost always the case; directresistance is provided only within an extremely limited range-of-movement, literally an infinitely small range ofmovement and in many conventionally exercises, there is no direct resistance at any point.</p><p>If the normal strength curve of human muscles exactly matched the apparently changing resistance provided byan exercise like the curl, then the movement would feel perfectly even; that is to say, no point in the movementwould seem to be any heavier than any other point. But since, in fact, the strength curve does not match thechange in resistance, some points do feel heavier than other points; so-called "sticking points" are encountered,where the weight feels very heavy, as well as points where there is little or no resistance.</p></li><li><p>The Arthur Jones Collection</p><p>Nautilus Bulletin #1</p><p>Just as jumping is not the best means of moving forward, since it involves the expenditure of effort in a verticalas well as a horizontal direction, trying to provide a rotary movement with constant resistance by using a uni-directional form of resistance is impractical at the very least. In such a case, resistance will only be can onlybe provided during part of the movement.</p><p>And even a casual thought should make it obvious that the maximum range-of-movement during which anincreasing rate of resistance is even possible is a rotary movement of 90 degrees; after 90 degrees of rotarymovement, the resistance must start decreasing. During the first 90 degrees of movement in a curl, for example,the direction of movement is constantly changing from horizontal to vertical, and the weight will thus seem toget heavier but after 90 degrees of movement, the direction of movement starts changing from vertical tohorizontal, and the weight will seem to grow lighter.</p><p>Direct resistance will be provided only at the point where the involved body parts (the hands, in a curl) aremoving directly upwards, meeting resistance coming from an exactly opposite direction.</p><p>If, at that point of direct resistance, the weight is too heavy, then you cannot progress to that point in themovement; but if the weight is light enough to permit a full-range movement even though heavy enough torequire an all-out effort at the point of direct resistance then you have provided balanced resistance only atone point in the curl. Thus you will be working the muscles properly during a range-of-movement of somethingless than 1 degree, out of a possible range-of-movement of about 160 degrees.</p><p>However, for all practical purposes, the situation is not quite that bad; in fact, you will be providing usefulresistance during a range-of-movement of approximately 20 degrees. But still, what about the other 140 degreesof movement?</p><p>Now, regardless of the position you assume for the exercise, it remains impossible to produce more than 90degrees of worthwhile movement; but it is possible to select "which" 90 degrees of movement you choose toexercise. But that subject also comes up in more detail in a later chapter, so I will skip it at this point; except topoint out that some positions are far more advantageous than others, since they involve working the muscles intheir strongest positions rather than in their weakest positions.</p><p>Now it should not be assumed that the apparent change of resistance that is encountered in conventionalexercises such as the curl is always a disadvantage; on the contrary, in many cases it is a distinct advantage.</p><p>Returning to the example of the curl, it should be noted that the bending muscles of the upper arms are in theirweakest position at the start of the movement, when the arms are straight; and as the arms start to bend, thelevel of strength increases rapidly. Thus, in this instance the apparently increasing resistance is a very decidedadvantage; because the resistance is increasing at the same time that the strength of the working muscle isincreasing even if, as happens to be the case, not in proportion.</p><p>But still, any increase is better than none; since the muscles need more resistance as the arms are bent and anincorrect rate of increase is better than no increase.</p><p>"But," you might ask, "why do the muscles need more resistance as they contract?"</p><p>Because of the shape of the muscles and because of the manner in which they function.</p><p>The well-known "all or nothing" principle of muscular-fiber function states that individual muscle-fibersperform work by contracting, by reducing their length and that they are incapable of performing variousdegrees of work; that is to say, they are either working as hard as possible, or not at all. When a light movementis performed, it does not involve a slight effort on the part of a large number of muscular fibers; instead, onlythe exact number of fibers that are required to perform that particular movement will be involved at all andthey will be working to the limit of their momentary ability. The other, nonworking fibers may get pushed,pulled, or moved about by the movement but they will contribute absolutely nothing to the work beingperformed.</p></li><li><p>The Arthur Jones Collection</p><p>Nautilus Bulletin #1</p><p>Thus, as should be obvious, in order to involve all of the muscle fibers in the work, the resistance must be soheavy that all of the fibers are required to move it.</p><p>However, in practice, this is extremely difficult to do; because all of the individual muscle fibers cannot beinvolved in the work unless the muscle is in a position of full contraction.</p><p>It should be plain that the muscle could be in no position except its shortest, fully-contracted position if all ofthe muscle fibers were contracted at the same time; the individual fibers must grow shorter in order to performwork, and if all of the fibers were shortened at the same time, then the muscle as a whole would have to be in aposition of full contraction no other position is even possible with full muscular contraction. Not, at least,unless the muscle is torn loose from its attachments.</p><p>But it does not follow that even a position of full contraction will involve the working of all of the individualfibers; because only the actual number of fibers that are required to meet a momentarily imposed load will becalled into play.</p><p>Thus, in order to involve 100% of the fibers in a particular movement, two conditions are prerequisites; themuscle (and its related body part) must be in a position of full contraction and a load must be imposed in thatposition that is...</p></li></ul>