national diabetes awareness day

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  • What is Diabetes?

    When you eat, your body breaks food down into glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar that is your bodys main source of energy.

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  • What is Diabetes?

    2

    As blood glucose rises, the body sends a signal to the pancreas, which releases insulin.

  • What is Diabetes?

    3

    Acting as a key, insulin binds to a place on the cell wall, unlocking the cell so glucose can pass into it. There, most of the glucose is used for energy right away.

  • What is Diabetes?

    4

    Blood glucose goes up and down throughout the day: As your blood

    glucose rises (after a meal), the

    pancreas releases insulin.

  • What is Diabetes?

    5

    Your cells dont use insulin properly. The insulin cant fully unlock the cells to allow glucose to enter (insulin resistance). Insulin is either not being made adequately or not used adequately

    Your pancreas may not produce enough insulin (insulin deficiency).

    TYPE I DIA

    BETES

    TYPE

    II D

    IAB

    ETES

  • 10% of Canadians

    Runs in families, other risk factors unclear

    Unpredictable or preventable

    Diagnosis in children or teens

    Insulin injection is essential

    Type I

    90% of Canadians

    Runs in families, but there are other known risk factors*

    Diagnosis often over 40

    Insulin is an option but not essential. Disease also managed with diet and exercise

    Type II

    6

  • Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes

    7

    Overweight (abdominal obesity) 45 years or older Physically inactive Have a parent or sibling with type 2

    diabetes. African or Native or Hispanic

    American, or Pacific Islander Abnormal cholesterol levels Have had diabetes during pregnancy,

    or given birth to a baby >9 lbs High blood pressure

  • Classic Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

    Blurred vision

    Fatigue

    Hunger

    Urinating in the middle of the night

    Feeling of thirst

    Frequent urination

    Weight loss 8

  • Diagnosing Diabetes

    Random blood sugar

    11.1mmol/L Plus classic

    Symptoms

    Fasting blood sugar

    7 mmol/L No calorie

    intake for 8 hours

    2-hours after 75g

    sugar load

    11.1 mmol/L 9

  • Diagnosing Diabetes

    10 Less than 5.55 mmol/L normal

    5.55 to 6.99 mmol/L pre-diabetes

    7 mmol/L or greater diabetes

    Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) results

    Normal Pre-diabetes* Diabetes

  • Blood Sugar Targets for Type I and II Diabetics

    11

    Pre-meal or fasting: 4-7 mmol/L

    2 hours post-meal: 5-10mmol/L

    (5-8mmol/L if A1C not met)

    A1c: 7%

  • ABCs of Diabetes Management

    12

    A1c

    Cholesterol Blood Pressure

  • HbA1c: the blood test with a memory

    Hemoglobin is a protein that makes your red blood cells red-colored.

    When hemoglobin picks up glucose from your bloodstream, it becomes glycosylated (known as HbA1c). The HbA1c test measures % HbA1c in your blooda number that corresponds to your average blood glucose for the previous 6 months

    A1C is a measurement of your average blood glucose control for the last 2 3 months and approximately 50%

    of the value comes from the last 30 days. 13

  • HbA1c and Blood Levels

    14

  • Blood Pressure The force of your blood against

    the blood vessel walls

    Recommended target for diabetics is 130/80 mm Hg

    Top number = pressure when your heart contracts and pushes blood out (systolic). Bottom number= pressure when the heart relaxes between beats (diastolic).

    High blood pressure means your heart is working too hard. High blood

    pressure can lead to Heart Attack, Stroke, and Kidney Disease 14

  • Cholesterol: a fat substance naturally present in your blood and cells. Two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL.

    Triglyceride: a form of fat that the body makes from sugar, alcohol or other food sources

    Diabetes and Cholesterol

    1. High triglycerides 2. Low HDL (good) Cholesterol 3. High LDL (bad) cholesterol

    15

    Diabetics have:

    LDL (low-density lipoprotein): bad cholesterol; increases risk of CV events HDL (high-density lipoprotein): good cholesterol; reduces risk of CV events

  • Whats the deal about SUGAR levels???????

  • 16

  • Diabetes Can Lead to Nerve and Small Blood Vessel Damage

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  • Pre-Diabetes and prevention

    Pre-diabetics can delay/ prevent the development of type 2 diabetes by

    making changes in diet & increasing level of physical activity.

    It is currently estimated that

    6 million Canadians have pre-diabetes!

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  • Recommendations by CDA Canadian Diabetes Association:

    Your goal should be to complete at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous- intensity aerobic exercise each week,

    (e.g. 30 minutes, 5 days a week).

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  • Benefits of Physical Activity

    20

    Lose Weight/ maintain body

    weight

    Lower Risk of Heart Disease

    Reduce Risk of Cardiovascular

    disease

    Blood sugar control

    Gain Energy

    Improve Well-being

    Improve Overall Health

  • Cant Exercise?

    21

    Pools Exercise balls or

    exercise bands Stationary bikes Exercise videos Yoga Local Recreation

    Centers or school facilities Walk to grocery store/work

  • Recommendations by CDA Canadian Diabetes Association:

    Make positive lifestyle changes, including healthy

    eating (according to Canadas Food Guide)

    REDUCE the amount of sugar, fat and sodium in your recipes by one-third to one-half ELIMINATE ingredients that add unnecessary sugar, fat or sodium

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  • Canadian Diabetes Association

    23

  • Managing Your Diabetes

    Step 1: Learn about diabetes.

    Step 2: Know your diabetes ABCs.

    Step 3: Manage your diabetes.

    Step 4: Get routine care to avoid problems

    24

  • Diabetes Self-Management

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    Monitoring blood glucose

    Taking medication

    Following a meal plan

    Getting regular exercise

  • Take Steps to Reduce Risk Factors for Heart Disease

    26 If you smoke, quit. Call the Smokers Help Line toll-free

    support line: 1-866-366-3667, and visit quitsmoking.shoppersdrugmart.ca to get started

  • Managing Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Vegetables and fruits (fresh or frozen without added salt)

    Low-fat (1% or skim) dairy products Whole grains (whole wheat breads, cereal, pasta and

    brown rice, etc) Lean meats and poultry without added salt Limit processed foods and take-out Unsalted or no added salt items (e.g. crackers, nuts) Avoid using salt at the table and in cooking

    Sodium intake should be no more than 1,500 to 2,300 mg per day. One teaspoon of salt has 2,300 mg of sodium

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  • Managing Sugar Levels

    Stick to small portions of sugary foods

    Consume natural sources of sweets (i.e. fruits)

    To keep blood sugar from spiking, avoid sweet treats chew on sugarless gum/candy for cravings!

    Drink lots of water (replace sodas)

    When you reach a healthy weight, which will be easier

    to reach blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar goals 28

  • REGULAR BLOOD MONITORING!

    Self-monitoring is essential

    Especially important for patients treated with insulin

    A minimum of 3 blood sugar readings per day should be performed*

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  • LOW BLOOD SUGAR: EMERGENCY!

    Medic Alert bracelet!! Cold, sweaty skin Difficulty concentrating dizziness Blurred vision Fatigue Shakiness, Lack of coordination Irritability nervousness Fainting, unconsciousness

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  • Getting regular medical care as a Diabetic

    Once (repeat at age 65) Pneumococcal vaccine

    1 time/year Flu shot

    1 time/year Urine microalbumin/ creatinine ratio

    2 times/year Dental exam

    At least 1 time/year Foot exam

    1 time/year Dilated eye exam

    At least every other year Cholesterol

    At least 2 times/year Blood pressure

    2-4 times/year HbA1c

    31

  • LB Cinnamon

    Cinnamon 3000MG

    60 capsules

    Promotes healthy glucose levels. No sugar, gluten, lactose or preservatives.

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  • LB Chromium

    Chromium - 500mcg

    100 tablets

    Provides support for healthy glucose metabolism. No sugar, gluten, lactose or yeast.

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  • LB No Calorie Sweetener with Sucralose 100 x 1g

    packets

    Suitable for calorie reduced diets

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  • LB Fit Management Clearly Fibre Daily vitamin and dietary fibre

    supplement.

    Helps the body metabolize fats, carbohydrates and proteins.

    No sugar added. No fillers, artificial sweeteners or colors.

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  • 2 types of Fibre Soluble Fibre Insoluble Fibre

    present in oat bran, oatmeal, legumes (dried beans and lentils) and

    fruits such as apples and strawberries

    Reduces cholesterol and manages sugar levels

    present in wheat bran, whole grain breads and cereals, fruits and

    vegetables.

    Helps to prevent constipation and some cancers

    controls blood glucose increases the feeling of being full manages blood pressure regulates bowel movement reduces blood chol