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Naming Compounds. What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii). BACKGROUND:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Naming CompoundsWhat's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii)

  • Prior to the 1700s, there was no systematic method of naming compounds. Substances were named in variety of ways, such as the use of compounds, the property of the compound, or the source of the substance. These names give little, if any, information about the composition of the compound.

  • Common Name: Quick lime/ Lime

    IUPAC Name: Calcium Oxide

    Chemical Formula: CaO

    Use or property: Neutralizing acidified lakes

  • Common Name: Baking Soda

    IUPAC Name: Sodium bicarbonate

    Chemical Formula: NaHCO3

    Use or property: Making baked goods rise

  • Common Name: Laughing gas

    IUPAC Name: Dinitrogen monoxide

    Chemical Formula: N2O

    Use or property: Used in dentistry as anaesthetic

  • Common Name: Table salt

    IUPAC Name: Sodium Chloride

    Chemical Formula: NaCl

    Use or property: Enhancing flavour

  • Common Name: Quartz sand

    IUPAC Name: Silicon dioxide

    Chemical Formula: SiO2

    Use or property: manufacturing glass

  • Background: valences and formulasValence electrons are the number of electrons in the outer energy level of an atom.Valence describes the number of electrons gained, lost or shared to achieve stability.For first 20 elements valence starts at 1 (alkali metals), climbs to 4 (group 4) and falls back to 1 (halogens)By knowing the valence of elements you can determine the formula of compoundsE.g. what compound would form from C + S?Step 1 - write valences: Step 2 balance valences by adding atoms: Step 3 write # of each atom as a subscriptC S4 2C S 2 2CS2

  • a) Al,Br b) K,S c) Zn,O d) Mg,N e) C,Cl f) Na,OAlBr3K2SZnOMg3N2CCl4Na2OAl Br 1 1 1

    AlBr3K S1 2 1

    K2SZn O2 2

    ZnOMg N2 32 32

    Mg3N2C Cl4 1 1 1 1CCl4Na O 1 2 1

    Na2O

  • Ionic compoundsRules for namingNames end in -ide. Example: sodium chloride1. Write metal name first then non metal2. Change the ending of the non metal to ide3. Do not capitalized unless starting a sentence

    Give formulae & name: Ca + I, O + Mg, Na + S= Ca2I1 = CaI2 = calcium iodide= Mg2O2 = MgO = magnesium oxide= Na1S2 = Na2S = sodium sulfide

  • Multiple ValenceSome metals have more than one valence.For these metals, you can use the Latin or IUPAC methodLatin is older (not useful for some compounds)IUPAC is more commonly used

  • Latin namingAs before, the metal name if written first and the non metal ends in -ideThe metal is named with its Latin or English root and ends in ic or ous to denote valenceE.g. Cu1 is cuprous, E.g. Cu2 is cupricLower = ous, Higher = icGive formulas and Latin names for:Cu2 + Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = cupric chlorideCu1 + Cl = Cu1Cl1 = CuCl = cuprous chloride

  • High with the i Low with the o

    Element (valence)

    English name

    Latin Name

    Higher valence

    Lower valence

    Metals that have and use latin names

    Cu (1,2)

    Copper

    Cuprum

    Cupric

    Cuprous

    Fe (2,3)

    Iron

    Ferrum

    Ferric

    Ferrous

    Pb (2,4)

    Lead

    Plumbum

    Plumbic

    Plumbous

    Sn (2,4)

    Tin

    Stannum

    Stannic

    Stannous

    Metals that do not have latin names

    Co (2,3)

    Cobalt

    -

    Cobaltic

    Cobaltous

    Cr (2,3)

    Chromium

    -

    Chromic

    Chromous

    Mn (2,3)

    Manganese

    -

    Manganic

    Manganous

    Metals that have latin names but use english root

    Hg (1,2)

    Mercury

    Hydrargyrum

    Mercuric

    Mercurous

  • Name the following:FeCl2Fe -> +2Cl -> -1

    CuOCu -> +2O -> -2

    Ferrous chloride

    - Cupric oxide

  • IUPAC namingMetal comes first, ending of non metal is ideThe valence of the metal is indicated in brackets using roman numeralsE.g. Cu1 is copper(I), Cu2 is copper(II)Numbers refer to valences not to #s of atomsTry: Cu2+Cl, Zn2 + Cl, Co2+Cl, Hg+S (do both)Cu2+Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = copper(II) chlorideZn2+Cl = Zn2Cl1 = ZnCl2 = zinc chlorideCo2+Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobalt(II) chlorideHg+S = Hg1S2 = Hg2S = mercury(I) sulfideHg+S = Hg2S2 = HgS = mercury(II) sulfide

  • Compounds containing polyatomic ionsGroups of atoms can also have valencesPolyatomic ions are groups of atoms that interact as a single unit. E.g. OH1, (SO4)2. Ba3(PO4)2 =So far we have given valences to single atomsLi + OLi1O2 Li2Obarium phosphateNaming compounds with polyatomic ions is similar to naming other ionic compoundsPut the metal name first, then the name of the polyatomic second. You should note that compounds with polyatomic ions have names ending in -ate or -ite not -ideName: Ca(OH)2, CuSO4, NH4NO3, Co2(CO3)3

  • Compounds containing polyatomic ions- calcium hydroxide - copper(II) sulfate - ammonium nitrate - cobalt(III) carbonateCa(OH)2 CuSO4 NH4NO3 Co2(CO3)3

  • Naming covalent compounds-ide ending, each element has prefixprefix refers to # of atoms - not valenceN2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxideException: drop mono for first elementCO2 = carbon dioxideThe first vowel is often dropped to avoid the combination of ao or oo.CO = carbon monoxide (monooxide)SO2= sulfur dioxide (doxide)Name: CCl4, P2O3, IF7P4O10= tetraphosphorus decoxide

    1mono2di3tri4tetra5penta6hexa7hepta8octa9nona10deca

  • Write and name the following covalent compounds (IUPAC)

    carbon tetrachloride

    diphosporus trioxide

    iodine heptafluorideCCl4P2O3IF7

  • Write the formulas for the following covalent compounds (IUPAC)

    dicarbon tetrasulfide

    pentaphosphous dioxide

    iodine octafluorideC2Cl4P5O2IF8