musculoskeletal disorders part two. osteoporosis reduction in bone density & change in bone...

Download Musculoskeletal Disorders Part Two. Osteoporosis Reduction in bone density & change in bone structure Bone reabsorption > bone formation Pathological

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  • Musculoskeletal Disorders Part Two
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  • Osteoporosis Reduction in bone density & change in bone structure Bone reabsorption > bone formation Pathological fractures can occur and collapse of vertebrae Postmenopausal women greatest risk due to estrogen deficiency Affects 1.4 million Canadians 1 in 4 women over 50 1 in 8 men over 50 Silent Dx as bone loss is asymptomatic- 1 st sign # Estimated cost 1.9 billion
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  • Metabolic Bone Disorders Changes in the physical & chemical structure of the bone due to estrogen deficiency, parathyroid disorders, Vitamin deficiency, malabsorption or physical inactivity. Types:Osteoporosis Pagets Disease Osteomalacia Gout & Gouty Arthritis
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  • Osteoporosis Fragility fractures occur due to low trauma (bending over to pick up a newspaper) Most common fractures: hip, vertebrae & radius Osteopenia- low bone mineral density compared with that expected for age & sex & risk factor for fracture Affects 13-18% of post-menopausal women & 30-50% have osteopenia of the hip 1 of every two women will experience a fracture at some point in their life
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  • Osteoporosis The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as bone mass that is 2.5 standard deviations below the peak normal value for a young adult (Dowd, 1999) Normal Osteoporotic Normal Osteoporotic
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  • Osteoporotic Changes Osteoporotic Changes Height 59 53 5 49 46 43
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  • Osteoporosis: Risk Factors Insufficient calcium & vitamin D Life style factors-smoking, caffeine, alcohol Lack of weight- bearing exercise Lack of sunshine Female Caucasian, non-Hispanic, Asian Increased age Low weight & BMI Estrogen deficiency or menopause Family hx Low initial bone mass Long term use of certain medications (corticosteroids, anticonvulsives) Coexisting medical conditions (celiac)
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  • Osteoporosis Management: Adequate intake calcium & vitamin D throughout life Regular wt bearing exercises Avoid alcohol & smoking
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  • Discuss: Osteoporosis is a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.
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  • Medications ERT (prevents bone loss) decreased use Bisphosphonates approved for the treatment of osteoporosis: alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and etidronate (Didrocal). Absorption of bisphosphonates by the oral route is poor, even when taken on an empty stomach Calcitonin-hormone slows bone reabsorption Evista (raloxifene) selective estrogen receptor modulators (do not increase risk breast or uterine ca)
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  • Nursing Diagnoses Altered health maintenance Acute pain r/t fracture & muscle spasm Risk for constipation Risk for injury
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  • Pagets Disease An idiopathic bone disorder characterized by abnormal & accelerated bone reabsorption & formation in one or more bones Normal bone is replaced by abnormal, structurally weaker bone that is prone to fractures Painful deformities are produced in femur, tibia, lower spine, pelvis & cranium
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  • Pagets Disease Humerus
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  • Osteomalacia Disease which bone becomes abnormally soft due to disturbed calcium & phosphorous balance secondary to Vit D deficiency Bones bend & flatten Deformities wt bearing bones Affects women endemic in Asia Causes: Chronic use anticonvulsants, strict vegetarian, very low fat diets, fibrous dysplasia, hyperthyroid induced osteopenia Treatment- Vit D, adequate Ca, P & Protein
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  • Gout & Gouty Arthritis Gout is a condition in which crystals of uric acid rise above normal levels & deposit in the joints, causing inflammation. Crystals may also form under the skin as well as the kidneys or urinary tract. Tophi - with repeated attacks accumulations of sodium urate crystals, are deposited in peripheral areas of the body, such as the great toe, the hands, and the ear
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  • Gout is caused by: an increase in production of uric acid under-elimination of uric acid by the kidneys increased intake of foods containing purines which are metabolized to uric acid increased intake of foods containing purines which are metabolized to uric acid dietary factors, some drugs & toxins dietary factors, some drugs & toxins
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  • Purine in Food
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  • Gouty Arthritis
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  • Comparison of Normal /Gouty Joint
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  • Uric Acid Crystals These spiked rods are uric acid crystals photographed under polarized light. Increased uric acid blood levels and formation of uric acid crystals in the joints are associated with gout. The definitive diagnosis of gout is dependent on finding uric acid crystals in the joint fluid during an acute attack
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  • TREATMENT of GOUT: Colchicine (reduces uric acid and phagocytosis NSAIDs (the treatment of choice) indomethacin & naproxen or steroids if resistant to NSAIDS Allopurinol (blocks production of uric acid) Aspirin and aspirin-containing products should be avoided during acute attacks & used only on the advice of physician
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  • Gout Drugs In multiple gout attacks, or those that developed kidney stones more aggressive drug management is necessary. Drugs that block absorption by the kidney, such as probenecid, and drug that block production of uric acid by the body, such as allopurinol are considered. The choice between these two types of drugs depends on the amount of uric acid in the urine. With correct treatment, gout should be well controlled in almost all cases.
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  • Gout & Nursing Care Episodes may be triggered by surgery, heart attacks, trauma, alcohol use, some meds Pain management essential (acute pain often great toe) Teaching Avoid certain diuretics such as thiazide Avoid certain diuretics such as thiazide Weight control without wide fluctuations Weight control without wide fluctuations Avoid alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, organ foods, gravy, peas Avoid alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, organ foods, gravy, peas
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  • Spinal Cord Deformities Scoliosis- lateral curvature of the spine in any area Kyphosis-humpback, posterior rounding of thoracic spine Lordosis- inward curvature of the lumbar spine seen sometimes pregnant, obese or lg. abd. tumors
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  • Scoliosis
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  • Herrington Rod & Scoliosis
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  • Osteomyelitis Severe pyogenic infection of the bone & surrounding tissue Bacterial mostly, can be viral or fungus Staph most common (E-coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Proteus) Femur & tibia males Clinical manifestations: Acute, localized pain, reddness or drainage, fever, malaise, elevated WBC, ESR, MRI to Dx
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  • Septic Arthritis A closed-space infection, caused by invasion of the synovial membrane by pus-forming bacteria or other pathogens Joints mostly affected; knee, hip, shoulder, wrist & ankle Most common cause neisseria gonorrhoae & staph Client has pain, swelling, warmth in joint & acute systemic reaction
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  • Septic Arthritis Antibiotic therapy initiated Pen G administered due to common causal organisms Open synovectomy & debridement or repeated joint aspirations & irrigations maybe needed Exercise & rehab. Important ROM & CPM successful for some
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  • Synovectomy
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  • Muscular Dystrophy Designates a group of genetic disorders involving gradual degeneration muscle fibers Progressive weakness & skeletal muscle wasting, disability & deformity Duchennes MD most common & severe Dx Sex-linked recessive disorder affects males exclusively (Xp21 gene) Lab Dx: serum creatinine kinase analysis (levels elevated in MD due to abn of striated muscle function) Treatment symptomatic & supportive
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  • Read Bone tumors Disorders of the foot
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  • BerarducciBerarducci, A. Lengacher, C.A., Keller, R. (2002). The impact of osteoporosis continuing education on nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 33(5), retrieved from proquest 0184306351&Fmt=4&Deli=1&Mtd=1&Idx=14& Sid=1&RQT=309 LengacherKeller 0184306351&Fmt=4&Deli=1&Mtd=1&Idx=14& Sid=1&RQT=309 BerarducciLengacherKeller 0184306351&Fmt=4&Deli=1&Mtd=1&Idx=14& Sid=1&RQT=309 The Arthritis Society The Arthritis Society Canadian Orthopedic Nurses Association Canadian Orthopedic Nurses Association


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