motivational & transformational leadership

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MOTIVATIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

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David StonehouseSenior Lecturer

MOTIVATIONAL / TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

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What is Leadership?

..getting people to do willingly, that which their instincts teach them not to. (Mullins: 2009)

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Scotland Forever!!Charge of the Scots Greys107 riders killed, 97 wounded, and 228 horses (of the original 416) lost

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Transformational Style Of LeadershipThis style was originally recognised by Burns (1978).

is a process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. (Mullins, 2007)Actively develop relationships with their co-workers.The work place & meaning of work are transformedEmployees pursue active goals.

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Transformational LeadersAct as mentors to their followers by encouraging learning, achievement, and individual development.They provide meaning, act as role models, provide challenges, evoke emotions, and foster a climate of trust. (Harms and Crede, 2010;6)

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Transformational Leadership A process of engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among followers. The emphasis is on generating a vision for the organisation and the leaders ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers, and creating a feeling of justice, loyalty and trust. In the organisational sense, transformational leadership is about transforming the performance or fortunes of an area of the organisation.

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Transformational Leadership Four Basic Components.Idealised Influence Charisma of the leader. Are they perceived as being confident and committed. Do they engender respect and admiration from their followers;

Leader aims for the employee to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team, department, or organisation (Daft and Marcic, 2009:427)

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Transformational Leadership Four Basic Components.Inspirational Motivation behaviour of the leader provides meaning & challenge to the workers. The leader sets challenging goals but ones which are attainable. inspirationally motivate employees by clearly articulating an appealing vision of the organisations mission and future. (Wright and Pandey, 2010:75)

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Transformational Leadership Four Basic Components.Intellectual Stimulation promotes intelligence & new ways of working. Encourages creative thinking, risk taking, to participate at an intellectual level and for followers to challenge their own assumptions.Individualised Consideration Leader has special concern for workers growth & development. Through mentoring, empowering, encouraging and being in frequent contact.

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Transformational LeadersHave a clear collective vision& they manage to communicate it effectively to all employees.Trust their subordinates and leave them space to breathe and grow.Stimulate employees to be more innovative.

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Transformational LeadersActively develop relationships with their co-workers, who become more active, motivated & inspiredThe work place & meaning of work are transformed.Employees pursue organisational goals.

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Guidelines for LeadersArticulate a clear and appealing vision.Explain how the vision can be attained.Act confident and optimistic.Express confidence in followers.Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values.Lead by example. (Yukl, 2010)

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Battle of Agincourt 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispins Day)

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St Crispins Day Speech From Henry VHe was presentHe was flexibleHe was honest

He was fairHe was involvedHe was clearHe was timely

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Key QualitiesKnowledge & skill, Effective communication of ideas, Confidence, Commitment, Energy, Insight into the needs of others

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Additional QualitiesAbility to listenAbility to reserve judgementGive direct & positive feedbackRecognise individual values through respect for others& use humour.

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The Dark Side of Charisma Yukl (2010)The leader may take unnecessary risksOr deny problems or failures as they occurPeople over rely upon the leader, accepting everything they say and do to be correct.No-one feels able to question decisions or voice opposition Yukl (2010:275) states Leaders demonstrating this failing may make more risky decisions that can result in a serious failure.

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Examples of Good Transformational LeadersSir Winston ChurchillSir John Harvey-JonesAnita RoddickRichard BransonSir Chris BoningtonDr. Martin Luther KingPresident John F. Kennedy

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What Motivates You?

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Work MotivationEconomic Rewards (Extrinsic motivation) - pay, job security, benefits.Intrinsic Satisfaction Psychological rewards, interest in the job itselfSocial Relationships friendships, group working, status.

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A Small Number of Theories Of MotivationPhysical NeedsPsychological NeedsForce-Field TheoryExpectancy-Value TheoryEquity Theory (Adams)Goal Theory (Locke)Motivational-Hygiene theory (Herzberg)Sociological InfluencesHuman Resources Model (X,Y, & Z) (McGregor)There are many more!!!!!

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Theories Of Motivation - Physical Needs Working conditions, are staff able to satisfy basic needs at work, hunger, thirst or sleep.Also the realisation that the leader is aware of any problems & is actually seeking out interventions can be motivational

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Theories Of Motivation - Psychological Needs

People can be expected to perform better to the extent that goals are difficult, specific & attractive.

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Theories Of Motivation -Force-Field Theory

This refers to the extent that people can view the big picture, giving them an opportunity to gain an insight into the problem.

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Theories Of Motivation - Expectancy-Value Theory

People will choose the behaviour with the largest combination of expected success & value.Persons own capability of meting a desired goalThe value of the goalThe probability that the goal will be fully realisedThe cost (be it personal or financial)The risk (be it esteem, status or safety)

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Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory Adams.

This states that a persons motivation is affected by whether that person feels they are being treated fairly in comparison with other people.

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Theories Of Motivation Goal Theory Locke

A persons goals or intentions play an important part in a persons behaviour.Manager needs to set challenging but realistic goals. Involve employees in goal setting and provide feedback.

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Theories Of Motivation - Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg)Two-Factor Theory.Hygiene or maintenance FactorsSalary, job security, working conditions, supervision, policy and administration and interpersonal relationships.Motivators or Growth factors Personal growth and development, nature of the work, responsibility, recognition and sense of achievement.Stresses the importance of job enrichment to improve the meaningfulness of assignments, perceived significance & worker autonomy.

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Theories Of Motivation - Sociological Influences

The need to be liked by others & a sense of belonging to a select group may fulfil needs of affiliation or self-esteem.

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Theories Of Motivation - Human Resources Model (X,Y & Z)Douglas McGregor (1960)

Theory X emphases external rewards, workers controlled through rewards andPunishment.Theory Y workers derive satisfaction from the work itself.Theory Z Combination of the X & Y.

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Summary Of MotivationMotivation is the basis for human behaviourIn this day of rapid change the need to maintain a creative, committed & productive workplace is very importantThe hallmark of leadership is an ability to motivate others to develop & achieve established goals & a sense of personal accomplishment & satisfaction.

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Why Bother With Theories? The manager / leader needs to be aware of what motivates their staff and what theories of motivation there are, so as best to apply these to their individual work situations. (Mullins, 2007)

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Worst Motivational Speech Ever!!!

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BibliographyDaft, R.L. and Marcic, D. (2009) Understanding Management. Sixth Edition. United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.Harms, P.D. & Crede, M. (2010) Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. Journal ofLeadership & Organisational Studies. 17 (1) 5-17.Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organisational Behaviour.Eighth Edition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.Wright, B. E. & Pandey, S. K. (2010) Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 20: Pp. 75-89.Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Seventh Edition. New Jersey:Pearson.

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