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Report of progress of the Microsystems fabrication laboratory(2009-2011)

Author: Shantanu Bhattacharya (Ph.D.), Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Date of Report: 16/09/2011

Microsystems Fabrication Laboratory (Department of Mechanical Engineering) The Microsystems laboratory has been commissioned within the Department of Mechanical Engineering in the year 2009-2010 by the financial support provided by the institute CARE program and through the external merit based funding that has been obtained by the Principle investigator and Co-PI of this CARE proposal. The laboratory has been commissioned with the following vision:

Vision of the Laboratory:

Our Long term vision is to establish a working micro-engineering center for excellence in functional microscale prototypes. The goal is to promote basic MEMS research and training, developing MEMS sensor modules for commercial and futuristic applications, generate resources for the institute through grant proposals, sale of patented technologies and developing MEMS educational modules. The bigger objective of this center is to develop the 21st century engineering and technical task force who would take up the technological challenges of the future decades.

Tangible Impacts to the Institute

1. Development of MEMS technology and products through a heavily iterative design process and reliability analysis of prototypes. 2. State of the art MEMS fabrication facility for national and international users from neighboring nations. This would generate a lot of institute good will and also monetary resources and would increase the visibility of IIT-Kanpur in the global arena. 3. Possibility of getting foreign scholars and students for training modules from the neighboring nations and Asian and Middle Eastern countries in general. The institute can eventually think of establishing MEMS engineering school associated with the design/ prototyping center for excellence. 4. Possibility of getting funded research projects from industries and national agencies by demonstrating the capabilities.

The laboratory is currently housed in the first floor of NET building and has a covered area of almost 3500 Sq. Ft.

Selected images of some of the devices fabricated in this laboratory: Photolithography:

Herringbone micro-mixers fabricated using lithography and laser machining

Interdigitated Electrodes (IDE) Using Lithography & Sputtering using Lift off process:

Wire bonding:

Gold pad on Si wire bonded with PCB

Spin coating and dip coating:

SEM Cross sectional images of Nanoporous films

Zinc Oxide Nanowires grown on Si substrate

Functional RT PCR micro-chip developed in our laboratory

Functional micro-pumps developed in our laboratory

Microchannels by soft lithography for DNA surface electrophoresis

GLIMPSE OF CURRENT RESEARCH DONE AT THE MICROSYSTEMS FABRICATION LABORATORY:

Mentioned below is a detailed list of the equipments and systems which are currently available and operational in this laboratory.

List of Equipment available at the laboratorySputtering/ PECVD Dual System

Sputtering is an important technique of deposition of thin films using Argon and other inert gas plasma created within the right chamber of the shown equipment. The other chamber is a PECVD tool (left chamber which is used to create material films on a substrate. In a PECVD process, gaseous reactants are introduced into a reaction chamber and a plasma is created out of the reactants. Reactions occur on heated substrate surfaces, resulting in deposition of the solid product. Other gaseous reaction products leave the chamber. The gas that carries the reactants is called carrier gas. The PECVD process have a part of their energy delivered by the momentum transfer by the ions in plasma; thus lower substrate temperature is needed, typically of the order of 100-300 deg. C. The PECVD at this time is in need for a Silane system which is very important for feeding the reactants which would react to formulate material films. Oxidation Furnace

Thermal oxidation is a simple route to cover a silicon substrate with oxide. In microdevices oxide may be used for a variety of purposes from chemical attachment and modifiability of surfaces to using oxide as a filler material in gaps etc. in microfluidic channels with submicron accuracy level or making microcantilevers. Based on the type of oxidation thermal oxide may be categorized as dry and wet oxides. In dry oxidation pure oxygen reacts with silicon at high temperatures from 800 deg. C to about 1200 deg. C. Dicing Saw

A dicing saw employs a high-speed spindle fitted with an extremely thin diamond blade to dice or groove semiconductor wafers and other work-pieces.

Spin Coater

Spin coating is a procedure used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. In short, an excess amount of a solution is placed on the substrate, which is then rotated at high speed in order to spread the fluid by centrifugal force. A machine used for spin coating is called a spin coater, or simply spinner. Gravity Convection Oven

A special gas or electric oven equipped with a fan that provides continuous circulation of hot air around the sample to be heated. Fume Hood

A fume hood or fume cupboard is a type of local ventilation device that is designed to limit the user's exposure to hazardous or noxious fumes, vapors or dusts. A fume hood is typically a large piece of equipment enclosing five sides of a work area, the bottom of which is most commonly located at a standing work height.

DI Water System

Distilled water is perfect for applications where minerals and contaminants would cause problems. Distilled water can be used in irons for steam settings or as coolant for car engines. Because there are no minerals that can stain or build up, distilled water is mostly recommended for use in machinery and cleaning products. The system produces Distiller water by heating and vaporization followed by collection and condensation of the vapours. Wire Bonder

Wire bonding is a method of making interconnections between a microchip and other electronics as part of semiconductor device fabrication. Optical Table

A rigid horizontal bar or track for holding optical devices in experiments; it allows device positions to be changed and adjusted easily. The vibration isolation table is used along at the base for prevention of vibration transmission to the optical setup kept over this. Desk Top Mask Aligner

Mask aligners are used in most microfabrication research laboratories and in even in low- volume production facilities. Almost any microscale device or structure requires more than one photomask step. The job of the contact aligner is to allow its user to align features on a substrate (wafer) to features on a photomask. The production of sophisticated electronic devices may involve ten or more of these alignment steps.

Chemical Balance

A beam balance of great precision used in quantitative chemical analysis. Air cooled Chiller

A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. A vapor-compression water chiller comprises the 4 major components of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and some form of metering device). The chiller will be used to fed the PECVD/ Sputtering systems etc. Nano Cal-C

The Nano Cal-c is a thin film measurement instrument which is capable of measurement of stacks of transparent films upto 500nm. It is based on the principle of reflectance measurements carried out by a laser and detector.

List of funded projects currently supported by this laboratory: (1) Initiation Grant Proposal, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, "Multiplex assaying of water borne pathogens using a Micro-chip platform", Funded (Sep. 2007- Sep. 2008). (Amount: 10,00,000 INR) (Completed) (2) Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, "Integrated Dielectrophoresis based concentration and real time PCR based identification of food pathogens in a single microchip", Funded (August 2008) (Amount: 41,50,000 INR) (Completed) (3) Proposal Reach Symposium-2008, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Development and validation of a microchip platform based technique to count bacteria, Funded (May-2008). (Amount: 5,00,000 INR) (Completed) (4) CARE 2008, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Developing a microfabrication facility, Funded (October2008). (Amount: 41,00,000 INR) (Completed) (5) EXTENDED CARE 2008, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Developing a micro-fabrication facility, Funded (October-2008). (Amount: 1,50,00,000 INR) (Completed) (6) Boeing Corporation, Design and development of an autonomous vehicle, Funded (January-2008~ December2011). (Amount: 67,00,000 INR) (Ongoing) (7) NPMASS, MEMS Design center, Funded (March 2009). (Amount: 38,73.900 INR) (Ongoing) (8) NPMASS, A novel MEMS based gas-sensor platform for automotive applications, Funded ( March 2010). (Amount: 44,00,000 INR) (Ongoing) (9) NPMASS, Miniaturized polymeric fluidic pumps based on principle of peristalsis, Funded (March 2011). (Amount: 52,50,000 INR) (Ongoing) (10) Department of Science and technology, Government of India, Surface electrophoresis of ds-DNA across nanostructured surfaces, Funded (November, 2011), (Amount: 53,00,000 INR) (Ongoing)

Awaited Funding:

(11) Proposal pending with BRNS, Lab on chip strategies for sorting and identification of pathogens using silicon micro-fabrication techniques, Submitted (September, 2011). (Amount: 90,00,000 INR) (awaited)

Publications from this labopratory: S.No. Author(s) 1. Shantanu Bhattacharya, Shuaib Salamat,