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    Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 2

    Project Management MB0049 -4 Credits

    (Book ID: B1138)

    Assignment Set-1 (60 Marks)

    Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

    Q.1 List and explain the traits if a professional manager.Answer:Traits of the professional manager

    The following traits enable a manager to be effective in his functioning. Endowed withthese it will be easy to be effective. The top management will look for these ina person

    who they want to employ for project management.

    (a) Leadership These managers lead by exhibiting the characteristics of leadership.They know what they should do, know why they are doing it, know how to do it andhave the courage and will to do it. They have the power of taking along with themothers.(b) People Relationships Any leader without followers cannot be successful. Theyhaveexcellent human relationship skills. The manager builds up his team based on thecore

    values of sincerity, objectivity and dedication. He ensures that his subordinates getopportunities for growth based on performance. He makes them a part of the decisionmaking process, thus ensuring cooperation and commitment during implementation.Hedelegates freely and supports them.(C) Integrity Highest -levels of trust, fairness and honesty are expected whiledealingwith people both within an outside the organisation. This includes the customers,shareholders, dealers, employees, the government and society at large. They ensu

    rethat functioning is clean. Their transactions will be transparent. Ethics is something theypractice diligently.(d) Quality The quality philosophy should not cover only the product quality, but everyprocess that has gone into making it. Economy of words when instructions are given,acknowledging compliance, arriving on time, remembering the promises and above all akeen eye for details and patience to make others know what they want are componentsof quality.

    (e) Customer Orientation It is now recognized that every organized two sets ofcustomers. Internal customers are people in the organisation employees, directors,

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    team members any person who needs your services, whose needs of demands you

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    satisfy. External customers clients and all members of society we come in contact inconnection with our business. They need our solutions for their problems. So, themanagers thinking about any problem is what can I do for him and all actions willbe

    in that direction.

    (f) Innovation and creativity Professional managers think beyond the obvious. Theyexhibit a keenness to go behind a problem and attempt to find the root cause oftheproblem. They will draw from their experience from diverse fields, seek furtherinformation and consider all possible alternatives and come out with some new andunique solution. This happens when they have open minds. A saying goes the humanmind is like a parachute, it is useful only when it is open. Such a work culture

    is veryconducive for problem solving which is the aim of all creativity. Their persistence willreward them. Such actions observed by their team members nthuse them and a spirit ofadventure will bring about better solutions faster.(g) Performance Management The professional manager not only ensures that hisperformance is at peak all times, but motivates his entire team to do it. This comes byappreciation and encouragement. If there any shortfalls he arranges for trainingthem sothat their performance improves. Thus the team members know that they are expected

    to perform, that they get help to do so and their effort is recognized. This isthe simplepath of performance management. The following seven step model will be useful:1. Objectives/Performance standards are set.2. These are communicated to the employees.3. Review/monitor the above.4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set.5. Identify gaps.6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed.7. Reset objectives for next period1. Objectives/Performance Standards Are Set1. To mange any criterion, it is necessary to measure the factors that were responsiblefor what is. The quality of the input, their quantity and their intended usage. Thenmeasures of the utilizationthe processes used, their suitability, and the difficulties facedin utilization and how they were resolved. Then the outcomes are they as they wereexpected. Performance closer or beyond expectation is the degree of quality. Foreveryemployee the level of achievement is set in terms of quantities and extent to which theperformance approached the standard. This is the basis for evaluating performance.

    2. These are communicated to the employees This procedure ensures that they knowwhat is expected of them and help them to adjust their activities in such a way

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    as tomeet them. This enables them to seek help, consult their colleagues or bosses, learnso that they will meet the expectations. It is possible that some objectives cannot be metat all. The communication to his boss, may help in reallocating the job, so thatthere will

    be no hiccups at the end of the period.3. Review/monitor the above Review helps in resetting the goals when they cannotbeachieved for various reasons shortage of resources, time etc. By monitoring, the

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    shortfalls can be made up with the allocation of extra resources, or even diverting theoperation.

    4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set This is the evaluation phase.Comparison on every detail is made. Differences are recorded. Particular areas a

    rechosen for improvement.5. Identify gaps Gaps mean the shortfall in performance standards. The immediatesupervisor is also involved. The extent to which they affect the functions of the job itselfare identified6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed There is a possibility that theperformance has exceeded the set standards. But if performance is not good thereasons and extent having been identified, the course of action for effecting corrections

    are decided. Giving extra responsibilities, training, relocation is considered.7. Reset objectives for next period The targets are revised either upward or downwarddepending on the conclusion of the appraisal process.(h) Identification with the organisation A sense of pride and belonging goes with theownership of the job, the project, team members and organisation. This is broughtabout by the culture and communication system in the organisation. Information sharingbrings in trust and promotes belongingness. The tendency seen is that most managersstrongly identify with their own departments, units or divisions and they lack asense of

    organisation.In the light of increased competition and ever changing strategies to develop businessorientation, which in effect means every manager should be aware of the companysplans, products and policies. An obvious corollary to this is that the organizationscommunication policy too should be conducive to such information sharing. Today,many organizations are using interventions such as team building, survey feedback,and other activities, to ensure that employees build up a strong sense of identity andpride in the organisation they work for.(i) Empowering employees: The professional manager should possess the ability toempower his employees down the line. Many managers are not even ready to delegatetheir authority to subordinates and end up only delegating responsibility. Empowermentis the process by which employees are encouraged to take decisions pertaining totheirarea of work. Empowerment ensures execution of his duties. This leads employeesdeveloping a sense of pride in their jobs. But managers often hesitate to empower theirsubordinates as they feel insecure and show a sense of uncertainty. The professi

    onalmanager practices empowerment and encourages employees to grow and develop intheir positions.

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    (j) Coping with changes: It is often said The only constant in this world is change. Aprofessional manager has the ability and capacity to cope with change. He accepts thefact that change is inevitable and is ready to implement change at the workplace. To

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    implement change successfully, it is essential that employees are involved in theimplementation of change. Further the positive andnegative consequences of change need to be discussed and understood beforeimplementation.Thus a professional manager has the attitude to accept change as a way of life a

    ndtakes it in his stride

    Q.2 Describe in brief the various aspects of programme management?Answer:

    Some of the considerations for effective programme management are given below:Focusing on the various strategic initiatives taken up for multiple projects andthe issuesrelated to benefits and risks.Bringing about the attention of management to a defined set of benefits, which are

    understood immediately, which are managed throughout the implementation and atcompletion.Helping top management to set priorities, choosing options and allocate resourcesSetting up mechanisms to measure and ensure that the projects making contributionsfor realizing expected business benefits.Leading the organisation on the path of where it an where it wants to be Ensuringthat the effects of the programme driven changes are coordinated, the transitions aresuccessfully managed. The operations are effective and efficient.

    Process of P2M :The objectives sought to be achieved and the methods which are

    adopted and the activities that are going to be undertaken i.e. the process include thefollowing steps :Preparing and maintaining a set of activities and the workflow that is to be followed andidentifying business areas responsible for different stages in the above;

    1. Making sure that the priorities that the above generate are relevant and theprojectsare run on the basis of their impact on the business as a whole;2. Structuring the programme so that the responsibilities and roles at both programmeand project level are acceptable to both the top management and managers;3. Planning the various points of review between various phases of the projects.Theprocess has to incorporate all the important aspects which are to be addressed duringimplementation and management of the projects. It is important to identify all factorsand incorporate resources men, materials, technology and time so that theirprovision can be planned.Managing the Programme

    When we consider the portfolio of projects as a programme, the main considerations will

    be on resources, risks associated with the programme, quality of the projects atevery

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    stage of the executionas meeting the requirements of the client as per the contract andmonitoring the change processes that get enmeshed during implementation. Thespecifics concerning the above are listed below:

    i) Evaluating the risks associated with the programme the planned changes to the

    business operations;

    ii) Ensuring that the processes to ensure quality are sufficient and purposes are fullymet;

    iii) Keeping track of the changes and developments external to the project environmentand studying their impact on the programme.iv) Making sure that the personnel in business affected by the above are informed and

    trained so that the projects are smoothly;v) Ensuring that the support services like human resources and IT are able to adopt tothe changes that take place in the projects and business operations as a whole.

    Q.3 Compare the following:a. Traditional Vs. Projectised Organization b. Reengineering Vs. E-engineeringAnswer:

    a. Traditional Vs. Projectised Organization: Projectised organizations are not specialor a separate species but those which tend to treat most of the work they do ascompartmentalized projects. The main concept that a project has a team responsib

    le forall activities. The time schedules are derived for a specific set of objectives.Each jobgets fitted into a slot so that resources required will be identifiable and therefore controlbecomes easier. The purpose is to consider all the projects from the organizations viewpoint as a programme for implementation. No doubt, development of technology anditsapplication for this purpose is essential. We will also see the various steps that aretaken for development of technology. We will go through the process of makinginnovation asan enterprise wide effort so that benefits and experiences will take the organisationfurther in the field of technology.Projectised Organizations

    This is one of the various models of organizations, which enterprises adopt to run theirbusinesses depending on the policies they follow, the opportunities they want toexploitand the constraints that the environment forces on them. Most organizations followsome sort of projectisation of their activities be it manufacturing, development o

    f aproduct, research, entering a market, acquiring of another company, trainingprogrammes, setting up a new plant etc. In some situations they find it advantag

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    eous totreat a set of activities requiring resources of different kinds for short periods to reach aparticular stage. They call that a project. Projectised operations have in themsome areall of the following objectives, so that this business model to be useful.

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    Accommodate discrete projects as a group in certain organizational units to facilitatemonitoring and controlling performance levels at various stages. Assign priority of divisional management efforts based on Paretos law backed bystatistics or rules of thumb for prevention of problems or profit growth on a group of

    projects in hand. Facilitate project resource assignment and subsequent adjustment especially humanand information resources among the various projects. Enumerate, evaluate and implement various procedures of standardization in the form

    tables, charts, manuals, templates with the abundance of data that get generatedacross projects. Analyses of data help in identifying opportunities of making changes insimilar projects.

    The project management capability can be enhancedperhaps with the help of thePMO, by setting objectives and measuring them with success achieved. Each projec

    tcan be measured for its maturity level. Enhancement of the levels of different projectsdoes become a motivational factor for performance enhancement. A system of internalbenchmarking gets initiated almost automatically resulting in highly efficient organisationas a whole. The principles of Project Management can be extended to various traditionaloperational type units.The main differences between the traditional and project approach are mentioned

    below. Here, we would like to emphasize that no one approach can be considered thebetter for all businesses or at all times for the same business. However, manyorganizations have found the project approach worth giving a try to improve productivity.

    Traditional organizations We have the formal organisation structure, withdepartments, functions, sections having an hierarchy of managers and their assistant.All of them function on a continuous basis catering to a series of requirementsissued bythe planning department. An assembly of various units of their production formsaproducts and a variety of such products make up the business of the company. Nooneparticular member or a department or a team is responsible for the completion ofanyparticular product. Their creativity and innovation is particular respect of jobs.Most of them do not get exposed to other areas of operations in the organisation. Theywill become specialists and be insular.

    Projectised organizations have teams comprising members who are responsible forcompleting one completely deliverable product. They will have all the resources

    required to do all jobs or operations to complete it. Most importantly, they have a timeschedule within which all the elements of the projects have to be completed. It

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    has beenfound that a sense of ownership of the project motivates them for being creative,cooperate among themselves to achieve high productivity.

    b. Reengineering Vs. E-engineering:Reengineering This is a process by which managers redesign a bundle of tasks into

    roles and functions so that organisational effectiveness is achieved. By doing so

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    dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance like cost, quality andserviceare expected. There will be a radical rethink about the business processes adopted.A business process is any activity like inventory control, product design, order

    processing, delivery systems. No reference is taken to the existing process ignoring it,an entirely new process is adopted. The following rules for reengineering are effectivei) Make changes with the outcome in mind not the tasks that result in them.

    ii) Make the users of the results of the process effect the change

    iii) Let the people on the spot decide on the solution decentralize

    b) EEngineering The term EEngineering refers to the attempts of companies to make

    use of all kinds of information systems, to make their functions efficient. Newinformation systems are installed for conducting all business processes in theorganisation. The use of electronic communicationwithin the organisation enable frequent interactions between employees and results inbetter communication. Meetings require their presence, but with teleconferencinga lotof time is saved.Data have repositories which are accessible, transferable and updatable instantly andused by all concerned. Crossfunctional workflows make it easier to coordinate activities.The increase in efficiency makes the organisation to meet customers requirements

    faster.All these result in widespread utilization of knowledge in the organisation. Ithelps increating and making available high quality of information. The information system usingintranet and internet solutions to carry on their regular activities on line.

    Q.4 List out the macro issues in project management and explain each.Answer:Macro issuesa) Evolving Key Success Factors (KSF) Upfront: In order to provide completestability to fulfillment of goals, one needs to constantly evaluate from time totime , theconsideration of what will constitute the success of completing a project and assessingits success before completion. The KSF should be evolved based on a basic consensusdocument (BCD). KSF will also provide an input to effective exit strategy (EES).Exithere does not mean exit from the project but from any of the drilled down elementalactivities which may prove to be hurdles rather than contributors. Broad level of KSFshould be available at the conceptual stage and should be firmed up and detailedout

    during the planning stage. The easiest way would be for the team to evaluate each stepfor chances of success on a scale of ten. KSF should be available to the managem

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    entduly approved by the project manager before execution and control stages. KSF ridesabove normal consideration of time and cost at the levels encompassing clientexpectation and management perception time and cost come into play as subservientto these major goals.

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    b) Empowerment Title (ET) ET reflects the relative importance of members of theorganization at three levels:i) Team members empowered to work within limits of their respective allocatedresponsibilities the major change from bureaucratic systems is an expectation fromthese members to innovate and contribute to time and cost.

    ii) Group leaders are empowered additionally to act independently towards clientexpectation and are also vested with some limited financial powers.

    iii) Managers are empowered further to act independently but to maintain a scientificbalance among time, cost, expectation and perception, apart from being a virtualadvisor to the top management.

    c) Partnering Decision Making (PDM) PDM is a substitute to monitoring and contro

    l. Asenior with a better decision making process will work closely with the projectmanagersas well as members to plan what best can be done to manage the future better frompast experience.The key here is the active participation of members in the decision making process. Theownership is distributed among all irrespective of levels the term equally should bea\voided here since ownership is not quantifiable. The right feeling of ownership isimportant.

    This step is most difficult since junior members have to respond and resist to beingpushed through sheer innovation and performance this is how future leaders wouldemerge. The PDM process is made scientific through :

    i) Earned value management system (EVMS)

    ii) Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS)

    iii) Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)

    iv) Actual cost of work performed(ACWP)

    d) Management By Exception (MBE) No news is good news . If a member wantshelp he or she locates a source and proposed to the manager only if such help isnotaccessible for free.Similarly, a member should believe that a team leaders silence is a sign of approval andshould not provoke comments through excessive seeking of opinions. In short leavepeople alone and let situation perform the demanding act. The bend limit of MBEcan beevolved depending on the sensitivity of the nature and size of the project. MBE

    providesand facilitates better implementation of effectiveness of empowerment titles .MBE is

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    more important since organizations are moving toward multiskilled functioning even atjunior most levels.

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    Q.5 Describe the various steps in risk management listed below:a. Risk Identificationb. Risk Analysisc. Risk Management Planningd. Risk ReviewAnswer:

    a. Risk Identification : To identify risks, we must first define risk. Risks arepotentialproblems, ones that are not guaranteed to occur. When people begin performing riskidentification they often start by listing known problems. Known problems are not risks.During risk identification, you might notice some known problems. If so, just move themto a problem list and concentrate on future potential problems.Risk identification can be done using a brainstorming session. The brainstorm typically

    takes 1530 minutes. Be sure to invite anyone who can help you think of risks. Invite theproject team, customer, people who have been on similar projects, and experts inthesubject area of the project. Limit the group size to nine people. In the brainstormingsession, people call out potential problems that they think could hurt the project. Newideas are generated based on the items on the brainstorm list. A project managercanalso use the process to refer to a database of risk obtained from past.The information obtained from such databases can help the project manager toevaluate and assess the nature of the risk and its impact on the project. Also t

    o a greatextent the judgment of the project manager based upon his past experience comesveryhandy in dealing with risks. Another important method is to generate alternativesolutionor methodology to deal with risk.Generate solution by means of group review meetings or a brainstorm session.During the brainstorm, consider the following items:Selection of weak areas in a project, such as unknown technology being used or to beused. Things, that are critical or extremely important to the effort, such as the timelydelivery of a vendors database software, creation of translators, or a user interface thatmeets the customers needs. Things that have caused problems in the past, such asloss of key staff, missed deadlines, or Errorprone software.Example of risks are: We may not have the requirements right,The technology isuntested,Key people might leave,The server wont restart in situation X, andPeople might resist the change. Any potential problem, or critical project feature, is agood candidate for the risk list. Once you have created a list, work with the group toclarity each item. Duplicate items can be removed.

    b. Risk Analysis : The first step in risk analysis is to make each risk item more specific.Risks such as, Lack of Management buyin, and people might leave, are a little

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    ambiguous. In these cases the group might decide to split the risk into smallerspecificrisks, such as, manager Jane decides that the project is not beneficial,Databaseexpert might leave, and Webmaster might get pulled off the project.

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    The next step is to set priorities and determine where to focus risk mitigationefforts.Some of the identified risks are unlikely to occur, and others might not be seriousenough to worry about. During the analysis, discuss with the team members, eachrisk

    item to understand how devastating it would be if it did occur, and how likely it is tooccur. For example, if you had a risk of a key person leaving, you might decidethat itwould have a large impact on the project, but that it is not very likely.In the process below, we have the group agree on how likely it thinks each riskitem isto occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is very unlikely and 10 isverylikely). The group then rates how serious the impact would be if the risk did occur, usinga simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is little impact and 10 is very large). To

    use thisnumbering scheme, first pick out the items that rate 1 and 10, respectively. Then ratethe other items relative to these boundaries. To determine the priority of eachrisk item,calculate the product of the two values, likelihood and impact. This priority schemehelps push the big risks to the top of the list, and the small risks to the bottom. It is ausual practice to analyze risk either by sensitivity analysis or by probabilistic analysis.In sensitivity analysis a study is done to analyse the changes in the variable values

    because of a change in one or more of the decision criteria.In the probability analysis, the frequency of a particular event occurring is determined,based on which it average weighted average value is calculated. Each outcome ofanevent resulting in a risk situation in a risk analysis process is expressed as aprobability.Risk analysis can be performed by calculating the expected value of each alternativeand selecting the best alternative.Ex : Now that the group has assigned a priority to each risk, it is ready to select theitems to mange. Some projects select a subset to take action upon, while otherschooseto work on all of the items. To get started, you might select the top 3 risks, or the top20%, based on the priority calculation.

    c. Risk Management Planning : There are two things one can do to manage risk. Thefirst is to take action to reduce (or partially reduce) the likelihood of the risk occurring.For example, some project that work on process improvement make their deadlinesearlier and increases their efforts to minimize the likelihood of team members being

    pulled off the project due to changing organizational priorities. In a softwareproduct, acritical feature might be developed first and tested early.

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    Second, we can take action to reduce the impact if the risk does occur. Sometimes thisis an action taken prior to the crisis, such as the creation of a simulator to use for testingif the hardware is late. At other times, it is a simple backup plan, such as running a nightshift to share hardware.

    For the potential loss of a key person, for example, we might do two things:Plan to reduce the impact by making sure other people become familiar with thatpersons work, or reduce the likelihood of attrition by giving the person a raise,or byproviding daycare.d. Risk Review: You want to review your risks periodically so you can check howwellmitigation is progressing. You can also see if the risk priorities need to change, or if new

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    risks have been discovered, you might decide to rerun the complete risk processifsignificant changes have occurred on the project. Significant changes might include theaddition of new features, the changing of the target platform, or a change in project

    team members. Many people incorporate risk review into other regularly scheduledproject reviews.

    Q.6 ABC Company implements got a very big project and they decided to allot thesameto a new project manager, who joined the company recently. In order to execute theproject successfully, what are the various phases in which the project lifecycleshouldbe divided.Answer:

    A new Project manager of ABC Company should divide the project life cycle infollowing phases:a) understanding the scope of the project,b) objectives of the project,c) formulation and planning various activities,d) project execution ande) project monitoring and control the project resources.

    A project manager is a person who manages the project. The project manager isresponsible to carry out all the tasks of a project. Responsibilities of the project manager

    Budgeting and cost control Scheduling tasks Allocating resources Tracking project expenditures Ensuring technical quality Manage relations with the customer and company

    Life cycle of a project manager overlaps with the development life cycle in themiddle.Duties of a project manager starts before the development and continue after delivery ofthe product.The main knowledge areas and processes in project management and theirrelationships, along with the process groups and its connection is shown in thefollowingfigures.

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    Phases Of Project Management Life Cycle

    The various phases in project management life cycle are Analysis and evaluation Marketing Design

    Inspecting, testing and delivery Post completion analysis

    Analysis and Evaluation Phase

    It starts with receiving a request to analyze the problem from the customer. Theprojectmanager conducts the analysis of the problem and submits a detailed report to the topmanagement. The report should consist of what the problem is, ways of solving theproblem, the objectives to be achieved, and the success rate of achieving the go

    al.The tasks of this phase are as follows: Specification Requirements Analysis (SRA): It has to be conducted to determinethe essential requirements of a project for achieving the target. Feasibility study: To analyze whether the project is technically, economically andpractically feasible to be undertaken. Tradeoffanalysis: To understand and examine the various alternatives which could beconsidered Estimation: To estimate the project cost, effort required for the project andfunctionality of various processes in the project System design: choose a general design that can fulfill the requirements

    Project evaluation: evaluate the project in terms of expected profit, cost and risksinvolved

    Marketing Phase

    A project proposal is prepared by a group of people including the project manager.

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    Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 2

    Project Management MB0049 -4 Credits

    (Book ID: B1138)

    Assignment Set-2 (60 Marks)

    Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

    Q.1 Write a short note on the following:a. Work Breakdown Structureb. Estimation ApproachAnswer:

    a. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub

    process placed in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).A typical example of a work breakdown structure of a recruitment process is indicatedbelow :

    This is the technique to analyze the content of work and cost by breaking it down into itscomponent parts.Project key stages form the highest level of the WBS, which is then used to showthedetails at the lower levels of the project.

    Each key stage comprises many tasks identified at the start of planning and later this listwill have to be validated.

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    WBS is produced by Identifying the key elements, breaking each element down intocomponent parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages havebeen identified. These can then be allocated to the appropriate person.The WBS does not show dependencies other than a grouping under the key stages. It is

    not time based there is no timescale o the drawing.

    b. Estimation Approach : There are two types of estimation approaches:a. Bottom up approachThe bottom up approach consists of the following

    i. Project manager first divides the product under development into major modules.ii. Each module is subdivided into smaller units.iii. Project manager defines a standard for manufacturing and selftesting asIdentify modules in the system and classify them as simple, medium or complex. As much as possible, use either the provided standard definitions or definitions

    frompast projects If a project specific baseline exists, get the average build effort forsimple/medium/complex(S/M/C) programs from the baseline. If a project specific baseline does not exist, use project type, technology, language andother attributes to look for similar projects in process database. Use data fromtheseprojects to define the build effort of S/M/C program. If no similar project exist in the process database and no project specific baseline existrefine the estimates based on project specific factors.

    b. Top Down ApproachThe top down approach consists of the following

    i. Get the estimate of the total size of the product in function pointsii. Using the productivity data from the project specific capability baseline from thegeneral process capability baseline, or from similar projects, fix the productivity level forthe project.iii. Obtain the overall effort estimate from the productivity and size estimates. Use effortdistribution data from the process capability baselines or similar projects to estimate theeffort for the various phases. Refine the estimates taking project specific factors intoconsideration.Q.2 List and define in Brief all the tools for Post Implementation ReviewAnswer:

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    After every stage of a project is implemented, it may so happen that there couldbe aminor change or modification which has to be reviewed. A review may by in thefollowing form

    a) Final product review The product obtained after every stage must meet the

    requirements of that stage. If it completely meets the stated objectives then focus on theissues of maintenance of the processes and product performance. If the final productdoes not completely meet the objectives then identify the variations in the product andanalyze the variation. Study the factors responsible for the change and evaluateeachone separately.

    b) Outstanding project work review Many times it is found that there may be some

    item of the project which is still not in its stage finished form. It may be insignificant as itmay be a byproduct of that stage not required immediately for the next stage. Then theitems that are open should be resolved and necessary steps be taken to close suchopen items..

    c) Project ReviewEveryaspect of a project from start to end has to be reviewed. The objectives, performancecriteria, financial criteria, resource utilization, slips and gains of time, adherence to the

    project definition and plans have to be reviewed. All such review details and reportshave to be well documented for future use.

    d) Process review Every process is important in any project. One may review theprocess to see if any changes can be made to improve its performance.

    Tools for Post Implementation Review

    There are various tools for post project implementation review that may be consideredfor improving and developing processes of the project. Reports are prepared on thesame which becomes the basis for all future discussion. Some of the tools that may beconsidered for post implementation review area) Final product evaluation This may be done through regularly organized meetingsand quality reviews.

    b) Outstanding project work evaluation All outstanding works of a project can bereviewed to check its output quality, its performance compared to planned and evaluatethe same.

    c) Project review questionnaire may become important if the reviews are to bestructured and group discussion may be initiated depending upon the points to be

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    discussed.

    d) Process evaluation evaluation of any process is one of the key issues of project

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    Q.3 Define the Basic categories of performance management.Answer:

    Performance Management The professional manager not only ensures that hisperformance is at peak all times, but motivates his entire team to do it. This comes by

    appreciation and encouragement. If there any shortfalls he arranges for trainingthem sothat their performance improves. Thus the team members know that they are expectedto perform, that they get help to do so and their effort is recognized. This isthe simplepath of performance management.

    The following seven step model will be useful:

    1. Objectives/Performance standards are set.2. These are communicated to the employees.

    3. Review/monitor the above.4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set.5. Identify gaps.6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed.7. Reset objectives for next period1. Objectives/Performance Standards Are Set1. To mange any criterion, it is necessary to measure the factors that were responsiblefor what is. The quality of the input, their quantity and their intended usage. Thenmeasures of the utilizationthe processes used, their suitability, and the difficulties facedin utilization and how they were resolved. Then the outcomes are they as they we

    reexpected. Performance closer or beyond expectation is the degree of quality. Foreveryemployee the level of achievement is set in terms of quantities and extent to which theperformance approached the standard. This is the basis for evaluating performance.2. These are communicated to the employees This procedure ensures that they knowwhat is expected of them and help them to adjust their activities in such a wayas tomeet them. This enables them to seek help, consult their colleagues or bosses, learnso that they will meet the expectations. It is possible that some objectives cannot be metat all. The communication to hisboss, may help in reallocating the job, so thatthere willbe no hiccups at the end of the period.3. Review/monitor the above Review helps in resetting the goals when they cannotbeachievedfor various reasons shortage of resources, time etc. By monitoring, theshortfalls can be made upwith the allocation of extra resources, or even diverting theoperation.4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set This is the evaluation phase.

    Comparison on every detail is made. Differences are recorded. Particular areas arechosen for improvement.

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    5. Identify gaps Gaps mean the shortfall in performance standards. The immediatesupervisor is also involved. The extent to which they affect the functions of the job itselfare identified

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    6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed There is a possibility that theperformance has exceeded the set standards. But if performance is not good thereasons and extent having been identified, the course of action for effecting correctionsare decided. Giving extra responsibilities, training, relocation is considered.

    7. Reset objectives for next period The targets are revised either upward or downwarddepending on the conclusion of the appraisal process.(h) Identification with the organisation A sense of pride and belonging goes with theownership of the job, the project, team members and organisation. This is broughtabout by the culture and communication system in the organisation. Information sharingbrings in trust and promotes belongingness. The tendency seen is that most managersstrongly identify with their own departments, units or divisions and they lack asense of

    organisation.In the light of increased competition and ever changing strategies to develop businessorientation, which in effect means every manager should be aware of the companysplans, products and policies. An obvious corollary to this is that the organizationscommunication policy too should be conducive to such information sharing. Today,many organizations are using interventions such as team building, survey feedback,and other activities, to ensure that employees build up a strong sense of identity andpride in the organisation they work for.

    (i) Empowering employees: The professional manager should possess the ability toempower his employees down the line. Many managers are not even ready to delegatetheir authority to subordinates and end up only delegating responsibility. Empowermentis the process by which employees are encouraged to take decisions pertaining totheirarea of work. Empowerment ensures execution of his duties. This leads employeesdeveloping a sense of pride in their jobs. But managers often hesitate to empower theirsubordinates as they feel insecure and show a sense of uncertainty. The professionalmanager practices empowerment and encourages employees to grow and develop intheir positions.(j) Coping with changes: It is often said The only constant in this world is change. Aprofessional manager has the ability and capacity to cope with change. He accepts thefact that change is inevitable and is ready to implement change at the workplace. Toimplement change successfully, it is essential that employees are involved in theimplementation of change. Further the positive and negative consequences of change

    need to be discussed and understood before implementation.Thus a professional manager has the attitude to accept change as a way of life and

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    takes it in his stride

    Q.4 Write a short note on the following:

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    a. Professional Responsibilityb. Business Orientationc. Personnel Productivityd. Conflict Management,Answer:

    a. Professional Responsibility : With increasing competition organizations havetofinds new ways of customer retention and adopt innovative measures to improve theircustomer base. However, one common requirement is productivity improvement.Managerial and executive productivity are measures in relation to zero defects andoverall Team Performance. The type of activities which can be performed only bytheexecutives and managers. Installing Development Methodologies and Quality Systemsis the

    responsibility of managers. Another area of Professional Responsibility for managers isReduction in Process Cycle Time. A few examples of high cycle time activities are:i) Procurement time for outsourced Software and hardware. Time to identify therequirements, the details regarding them, verification and authorization inputsfrom ourcompany the start of the activities by the vendors lack of follow up with the vendorsthese should be avoidedii) Overall processing time linked to sales commitment, Financial cycles and Progressimbalances;

    iii) Order confirmation time loose ends not being connected and important not beingconsidered at the early stages of processThere are many opportunities for laxness to enter. The common factors for all these forthese are absence of details, lack of awareness and absence of checks and balances.The Project Manager should set up systems will take of these. In addition to these a fewmore areas whereby managerial productivity are taken into reckoning are :a) Creativityb) Lateral thinkingc) Quality Circlesd) New Product Introduction Lead timee) Managing Changef) Implementing TQMg) Empowerment of Junior level executives.You will notice that none of these factors are directly connected with theimplementation. But, when these are undertaken the effectiveness of every memberimproves bringing about all round development.

    b. Business Orientation : The Project Manager should understand the business ofthe

    organisation he works for. He should know the way things are looked at by the topmanagement and align his thoughts and conduct, so as not to be in confusion or c

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    onflictwith them. He should have his senses tuned to grasp business opportunities thatcropup during the implementation.

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    c. Personnel Productivity : Productivity at the junior level can be assumed andcontrolled only if all other supporting elements of business are well balanced.Higherproductivity cannot be expected if they are not motivated. Througha) Sufficient content of development activities the work should be interesting and bring a

    sense of satisfaction and achievement;

    b) Favourable working conditions environmental conditions should make aman/woman feel comfortable to stay at the workplacec) Planned activities clear line of authority and recognition of performance;d) Adequate availability of resources; otherwise frustration sets in and commitment islost;e) Properly planned system of quality control though Process Control If the process isnot good, even the best efforts will not be enough to get tolerable quality andthe person

    doing it is made responsible;f) Adequate maintenance support for Hardware and Software; these ensure that nowork gets held up on this account efficiencies bring in productivity.As far as productivity as well as quality is concerned, especially, where projects areconcerned, it is good to follow Demings philosophy, which states create conditions forperformance, do not use rhetoric, pay him well and give the pride of working.

    Assessment of Personnel Productivity

    Unlike productivity on shop floors, Personnel Productivity can be considered ona

    collective basis.The following can be used as guide lines to make assessments;a) Time for development of a new productb) Index of financial cyclesc) Time for finding and proving a solution to serious customer complaints;d) Time for development of a bigger market for an existing product.It is better to avoid the following for assessment:a) Individual achievements or failures;b) Individual outputs;c) Reflection on Financial Healthd) Reflection on InventoryIt is better to remember always that the first person to know that something hasgonewrong is the person who caused. If left alone or hinted in privacy, contemplation and adesire to make amends is strong in every individual. It is not suggested here thatmistakes should be forgotten or excused. If tendency persists, then serious correctiveaction should be initiated at the earliest. Some times, training will help.

    d. Conflict Management, : It is possible to manage the conflicts in one of the followingways

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    a. Avoid the issueb. Approach the problem in such a way as to obtain the solution quickly.c. Discuss and share the problemd. Any misunderstanding should be resolved by means of a discussion among projectmembers.

    e. Work on a common solution technique that will lead to a win win situation.f. Emphasize on collaborationQ.5 Comment on the followinga. Importance of DMAIS in project management cycleb. Knowledge areas of project managementAnswer:

    a. We can consider the five steps DMAIS as generic for any system of a journeytowards excellence. It is highly relevant in Project Management for the simple reasonthat all the steps give out in detail the steps to be taken and that they will ensure

    readiness for the next. Verification of implementation is possible with checklists whichcan be prepared and used by employees at all levels. The team members can be giventraining to follow them. We will consider them one by one.1. Define This step requires that what is sought to be achieved is identified inall itsdetail.The following are the inputs which will define what we are going to make:a) Benchmark The standards achieved by the best in the industry. Our product isset tomeet them.b) Customer Requirement

    c) Process Flow Map Activities that take place to result in the product at the end ofthem.d) Quality Function Deployment This tool compares the quality characteristics inourproduct with those in our competitors and their relative importance to the customer. Toachieve them, we find the technical specifications we have to incorporate in ourproduct.e) Project Management Plan This includes the materials, men, activities, schedules,milestones etc.2. Measure Measuring the outcomes of the activitiesa) Data collection Data about the work that is done and compare as to how itcorresponds with what is requiredb) Defect Metrics The deviations that are in the effective potion of the work whetherthey are acceptable or can they be rectified.c) Sampling If the volumes are high, select a few of them and inspect them to seewhether the entire batch is acceptable

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    3. Analyze Use the data on measures to perform analyses. Tools used can bea) Cause and Effect Diagrams also called Fishbone Diagramsb) Failure Mode and Effect Analysis FMEAc) Root Cause Analysisd) Reliability Analysis3. Improve Measures to remove the defects found earlier are implemented for

    improving the processa) Design of Experiments The effect of changing values of parameters is done inacontrolled way so that the effect of variations are experimentally determined and resultsused for optimizing the processb) Robust Design To reduce the variations, the equipment design is made robust.c) Tolerances the permitted deviations are made closer, so that the capability ofprocess is increased4. Standardize When improvements have become consistent, the methods adopted are

    standardized.b. Knowledge areas of project management :It comprises of various techniques needed to manage projects, the practicalmethodologies adopted in formulating a project and managing the resources whichwould affect the project completion. Relationship with other management disciplines isessential for a project to be successful. Supporting disciplines includes law, strategicplanning, logistics, human resource management and domain knowledge.The main knowledge areas and processes in project management and theirrelationships, along with the process groups and its connection is shown in thefollowingfigures.

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    Q.6 What are the various SCMo soft wares available in project management?Explain each in brief.Answer:The various SCMo soft wares available in project management are:ARIS Web Publisher

    The task of the ARIS Web Publisher is to create HTMLpages of the models (WebPublish) that can be released in the internet /intranet and displayed via the InternetExplorer.

    How to navigate in the Web Publish

    The following chapters give support for the navigation in the Web Publish in order tolook at the modeled processes.

    Home page

    The Home Page is split into three sections: Below the header you can find a brown bar with a link to this document. Below the baryou can find the Model selection and the Model list.

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    IN either one, all models can be found but in a different structure. The models in the Model selection are structure in folders like in Windows Explorerand the models in the Model list are grouped by their type and within a type arelistedalphabetically.

    Navigation in the Model selection:

    Folders can be opened by clicking on the +/ symbol. Models can be opened by clickingon the model name Navigation in the Model list. Models can be opened by clickingonthe model name. The Web Publish allows the standard Internet Explorerfunctionalities,for e.g., the function key to get back to the previous page.

    Model Page

    On the model page the Model graphic is displayed, Depending on the size of the model,scroll bars may be found on the right hand side and bottom of the model. With thesescroll bars you can scroll to the parts hidden in the current view of the model.Thegraphic of the model can be enlarged or shrunk. To enlarge the model graphic, click inthe white background of the model graphic and press the = key. Clicking on an objectin the model graphic you can open the object page with further information conce

    rningthat object. Clicking on the assignment symbol, the assigned model is opened.

    Object Page

    On the Object page you can find information on the following points:

    Object attributes

    ARIS offers a variety of different attribute fields. On this page only attributefieldscontaining information are displayed. These are on one hand Standard attributesof theobject such as name, last change an creator and on the other hand attributes such asremark/example or description with detailed information concerning object, in particularfunctions.

    Object relationships

    Information concerning the edges between this particular object and the ones itis linkedto.

    Object occurrences

    A list of the models / processes is considered. Find the occurrence of this part

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    icularobject as part of the process. Object hierarchies, Master object, variants and Feedbackare not relevant here.

    Master Global Materials Management Operations GuidelinesObjectives of Document

    Produce a common Materials Planning and Logistics evaluation that can be used byallbusiness partners both internal and external Enable Materials Planning and Logistics continuous improvement plans to bedeveloped and prioritized, thus enabling time to be spent on those activities that offerthe greatest benefit. Establish the components of Materials Planning and Logistics system for suppliers ofgoods and services within the automotive industry

    a. Drive continuous improvement within the organization

    b.Improve delivery performance within the supply organization.

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    Prepare basis for benchmarking activities and to identify Best Practice Criteria ofmaterials planning and logistics processes for driving continuous improvement plans.

    Strategy and Improvement

    1. Vision and Strategya. The organization has a strategy that ensures the Materials Planning and Logisticsvision is achievedb. Key performance Indicators (KPIs) shall cover objectives for all areas of theMaterialsPlanning and Logistics process.2. Objectivesa. Objectives relative to the Materials Planning and Logistics function are defined,communicated and understood within the organization.

    b. Key performance Indicators (KPIs) shall cover objectives for all areas of theMaterialsPlanning and Logistics process.3. Measurement, Analysis and Action plansa. Objectives are measured, analyzed, and action plans created where necessaryb. Corrective and preventive actions, identified by KPI analysis, to improve performanceare documented.4. Supply Chain Developmenta. Internal customer satisfaction objectives related to Materials Planning and Logisticsare identified, measured and communicated within the organization.Work Organization

    Organizational Processes MaterialsPlanning and Logistics processes are described starting from customer interface,through internal production until supplier interface Organizational Procedures Organizational procedures exist for all functions withinMaterials Planning and Logistics Resource Planningi ) Resource flexibility and availability are optimizedii) Contingency plans shall exist to avoid disruptions when something unexpectedhappens in the supply chainiii) A System exists for highlighting and communicating with both customers andsuppliers within the plant, any incident or deviation from the production plan. Work Environment and Human Resource Plans exist for the control and improvement of the work environment The roles and responsibilities within the Materials Planning and Logistics function areclearly documented. There is a process identifying current and required skills within the organization A training and development program exists for each employee in the MaterialsPlanning and Logistics function Actions are taken to improve employee motivation and empowerment in the Material

    sPlanning and Logistics function.

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    Capacity and Production Planning

    1. Product Realization

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    a. The organizations Materials Planning and Logistics function shall formally participatein, and sign off/on, the product Realization Process2. Capacity Planninga. The organization shall perform a comparison of its resources against the customers

    long, medium and short term requirements. A process shall be in place that ensuresprompt communication to the customer of any risk that could affect their operations3. Capacitya. The organizations capacity planning process has the flexibility to ensure thattheProduct Approval Process (PAP) requirements are available in a timely manner tosupport customer changeover/ launches4. Implementation1. The organization implements measures to minimize obsolescence of Raw Material,

    WIP and Finished GoodsThere is a process to ensure the availability of service/spare parts5. Production Planning.A process shall exist to plan production requirements and to maintain the parameters ofthe production planning systemThe production scheduling system supports lean manufacturing (e.g., pull systems)

    6. System Integrationa. The customer information shall be processed directly into the organizations planningand scheduling systems

    b. The organization sets the timing of the Material Requirements Planning System(MRP) process to coincide with the receipt of the expected customer requirements7 Customer Interface

    The attributes of customer interfaced with the system are

    Communication

    1. The organization maintains a process to ensure a cooperative communication basedon actual and adequate information for both the parties.2. The organization shall receive requirements planning and shipping informationelectronically, when available from the customer3. The organization shall have a process to ensure that any potential problems thatcould impact the customer operation are communicated as soon as they are identified. Packaging and Labelling1. The organization shall have a procedure for packaging development, coordinatedwith the Product Approval Process2. The organization manages the container process to ensure that the availabilit

    y ofreturnable/non returnable containers is adequate to support the material flowrequirements.

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    Shipping1. The organization controls its processes to assure that the physical shipmentscorrespond with the customer demand2. The organization shall have a process to ensure complete and accurate data contentand timely transmission of all Advanced Shipping Notices (ASN)

    3. The organization inspects and calibrates all shipment quantity determinationequipment at planned intervals to an acceptable accuracy level, as defined by thecustomer.

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    Transportation

    1. The organization shall assure the transport of finished goods satisfied customerrequirements (e.g., carrier, mode, special equipment, cost responsibility)2. Optimization of transportation capacity should be considered during the suppl

    y chaindesign phase Customer Satisfaction and Feedback1. The organization has a process to assess customer satisfaction whether or notthecustomer provides feedback.Production and Product Control Material Identification

    1. There shall be a process/method in place to ensure that all parts are labeledaccurately and identified easily

    Inventoryprocess1. The organization has one integrated system encompassing both perpetual inventoryand associated financial functions (e.g., one set of books)2. There are systems in place facilitate access to an management of all types ofinventory finished goods, Worksinprocess(WIP), and raw material3. The organization has a process to optimize the material flow4. The organization has a process that ensures that all material records are maintainedand accurate and deviations investigated and corrected. Inventorymaintenance

    1. The organization has a process in place to coordinate phased out inventories (e.g.,those affected by engineering changes and programs that are being phased out) withboth supplier and customer.2. The organization has a process to continuously evaluate and optimize inventorybuffers3. The organization shall have a process to identify and route defective/obsoletematerial in a timely manner. This process shall ensure that defective/obsolete materialis segregated and disposed off properly (e.g., reworked or scrapped) Engineering Change Control1. The organization shall manage engineering revision levels with documentedprocedures for customer, supplier, and internal changes2. The organization manager the life cycle of tools to ensure customer requirements atall stages of production.3. The organization shall use a process to obtain written customer authorizationfordeviation whenever the product or process is different from that currently approvedthrough Product Approval Process (PAP) Traceability

    1. Where regulation and/or the customer require traceability, a system that support lotand/or serial traceability shall be in place.

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    Supplier Interface

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    Supplier Selection : Materials Planning and Logistics criteria is considered whenselecting suppliers or other business partner for new or existing products or services. Materials Planning and Logistics Agreement/Instruction : Documentedagreement/Instruction shall exist with suppliers and sub contractor/outside proc

    essorsregarding Materials Planning and Logistics. Communication : A method of communication exists among suppliers, subcontractorsand logistic providers covering day to day issues and emergency situations. Proceduresfor data exchange shall be implemented with Suppliers and Logistics Providers. Packaging and Labelling : There is a documented procedure for packagingdevelopment.Packaging management and control is organized in an efficient way. Transportation : Procedures exist regarding management and cost optimization ofinbound transportation.

    Material receipt : Sufficient capacity and appropriate equipment in the materialreceiving function is ensured and optimized. A process exists to verify labelinganddocumentation against Materials Planning and Logistics requirements for procuredparts. Supplier Assessment : Partners (suppliers, subcontractos and logistics serviceproviders) in the supply chain are assessed regularly according to a defined procedure.

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