mb0049 project management sem 2 fall 2011 assignment

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Reg No: 521135115

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0049 Project Management - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 1

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115

Q.1 List and explain the traits of a professional manager. Ans. Being a good manager is like putting a jigsaw puzzle together. The first time you try to fit the pieces together, it takes a while to get everything to fit smoothly. The second time you attempt to make the pieces fit, you are a little more familiar with the pattern. Each time after that, it becomes more and more natural to easily match everything together and have it all turn out right. The pieces of the puzzle a manager has to put together are: 1. advertising 2. recruiting 3. holding productive meetings 4. motivating a person who is in an emotional or financial slump 5. handling types of personalities they dont relate to 6. recruiting people that are happy on other jobs, but are ready for change. All of these techniques combined together make a great manager. In fact, great managers have ten characteristics, and if each of these ten characteristics is developed, you will become a great leader and a great manager. Lets start off with quality number one. The very first thing we find in a great manager is a total commitment to building a team that functions in unison to reach their goals. Great managers realize they are a team. Their team is made up of individuals that have different beliefs, values, and ideals, but they all have to function in unison to reach the goals of the company. The second characteristic we find in a great manager is they live what they teach and they command respect by their example. You cant be one thing and say another because youll lose respect. Its not that important that your salespeople just like and admire you. It is important that they respect you first ? the other things will follow. Quality number three is very important. Great managers don't become buddies. They practice business detachment with subordinates off the job. Number four is also very important. Dont play favorites. What do I mean by this? Make a mental note of the words justice? and fairness.? These two words are critical in leadership? that you are totally just and totally fair through everything. Youre going to have to realize that if you play favorites in the office, the group will know it, and you will lose respect. Not only that, they start saying to themselves, The reason Im not doing good is not my skills, not my ability. Ive got a manger that gives the best business to other people. I cant make it? And by the way, the person youre playing favorites with over the years can be the one that will cause you the biggest challenge when you go through change in policy or leadership, or when you really need something done. So remember, just be fair and dont play favorites! Number five is so critical. Great managers develop future vision. They see their company position, their market share, and their competitive edge in the future. But great managers also have to start seeing themselves in the future, the office in the future, the number of salespeople theyll have, and how they are going to delegate. How do you develop future vision? It comes back to having a plan and a goal. You must learn how to delegate authority and eventually replace yourself. What do you delegate? Anything you can train anyone else to do which keeps

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 you from doing three things: recruiting, managing, and training. Number six. They attack pending problems and rapidly make tough decisions. Average managers dont make decisions. In fact, they make decisions so slowly, that eventually there is no need for a decision. What they had to decide upon has already taken place, so there is no need to do anything, you see? Now, as far as making decisions about managing your office, theres one thing I want to warn you about. Until you totally learn your skill of managing, rely on the people above you and run decisions past them. Rely on others for your knowledge and growth until, of course, you have all the answers. Dont forget number seven if you really want to build a great sales force: promote risk-taking. You want to promote risk-taking with your salespeople. What do I mean by risk-taking? Im talking about your salespeople going out a little bit on the edge as to the things they own, the things they buy, and the way they live. In essence, they must gradually up? Their overhead as you teach them to up? their income. As a good manager, we help people increase their overhead with balance, so that as they grow income-wise, they also grow emotionally and enjoy their income. Promote risk-taking. Teach your salespeople they have to take a little risk in order to grow. And dont forget number eight. Great managers are specialized at recruiting, training, and retaining top people. That is a great managers main specialty. Becoming a great trainer or teacher is necessary, because if you can't duplicate yourself and the concepts you used as a super salesperson, you won't be able to complete the entire puzzle. Now number nine is interesting. Good managers look at change as healthy. Change excites an office. It keeps people on their toes. It motivates people to go far beyond what they normally would, and not only that, it keeps people out of a rut. Thats why great managers dont do the same thing every day. They dont come in at the same time every day. They dont eat lunch at the same time every day. They keep everyone on their toes. Ill tell you a basic truth about salespeople: if you have a set schedule, they will develop their schedule right around yours. The last characteristic great managers must learn is to help people change their self-images by using their individual needs to be comfortable. Salespeople lack confidence because they are afraid and don't know what is going to happen to them. A managers job is not only to instill confidence, but also to increase the way salespeople look at themselves. You see, self-image is a mirror reflection of who you think you are. It may not be who you are. Your goal is to develop your salespeople and to get them to grow far beyond their wildest dreams. It starts with how they see themselves Q.2 Describe in brief the various aspects of project management? Ans. For the success of any project management program, a specific skill set is required. All project management programs are unique and have their own set of challenges obstacles and solutions. A successful project management plan should have a dedicated team that concentrates on effective planning; accurate analysis and skill based objective building that is centered round the project at hand. Some of the main challenges of project management are Proper and effective communication with the firms stake holders

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 Managing employee stress and pressures that arise out of projects Proper allocation of resources that results in high profits Preparing in advance for potential problems that may arise in the project Assigning responsibilities to employees based on their capabilities. Here are some of the key aspects of a successful project management program: You can call your project management plan a full success when three main factors are taken care of: Resource allocation Completion of targets within time lines Completion of targets within the allocated budget and resources This can happen only when you have a full understanding of the business and what you desire from it. Firstly, conduct a detailed analysis of your business and understand its structure and mode of operation fully and accurately. Take care of even the smallest and most irrelevant detail before implementing a project management program. Set definite goals that are sound and realistic within achieve-able timelines. Decide the necessary methods and equipment required for implementation of the plan beforehand itself so that you can start on time without any delays and loss of valuable resources. And lastly make a thorough plan with the complete details of all expected expenses and resources that will be required. This is highly important as money matters the most in any project management plan for any firm. Q.3 Compare the following: a. Traditional Vs. projected Organization Ans. When the execution of projects is a normal part of the organization's business, it is expected that the organization will establish, in parallel with the Operations function, a function to manage the projects. This would normally include a Central Project Office or Project Management Office (PMO), and specialized personnel to manage projects. The PMO, under a Chief Project Officer (or similar title) will develop standards and practices directed at the effective execution of projects and the attainment of schedule, cost, scope and quality objectives. In doing so, a project management planning and information system is put in place, and periodic measurements of project progress and performance are conducted. In the traditional organization, responsibility for determining and achieving the organization's goals are assigned to the Operations function. Senior managers, having titles such as COO, CTO, CIO, CFO, Strategic Planner, etc., establish objectives and goals, and develop strategies to achieve these. When there are projects associated with these goals, these senior managers are expected to select from a menu of proposed and pending projects. The objective is to create the mix of projects most likely to support the achievement of the organization's goals - within the preferred strategies - and within the organization's resource (people and funding) constraints. A problem, common to many organizations, is that there is no connection between the Operations and Projects functions, nor is there a structured,

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Reg No: 521135115 consistent, and meaningful flow of information between these two groups. The organization's objectives (enterprise-level goals) are hardly ever communicated to the Project Office, and the periodic measurements made by the projects group cannot be related to these objectives. When attempting to determine exactly how an organization fits in to the grand scheme of the organization and analysis as well as the conducting of any of a number of series of given projects, it is helpful to attempt to categorize as to whether a particular organization can be deemed to be that of a projected organization. A projected organization refers specifically to the particular and specific organization in question that has been built through the utilization of an organizational structure that has been set up in a manner in which the project manager leads the group and in which the project manager has the ultimate authority to make any and all decisions involving the organization, including, but no necessarily limited to, the assignment of all priorities, the application of any predestinated resources, and also any and all direct workings of persons that have been assigned to the project already or may be assigned in the future. b. Reengineering Vs. E-engineering Ans. Reengineering implies changes of various types and depth to a system, from a slight renovation to a total overhaul. Some of the typical challenges our clients have: A system was developed for us, but we'd like to change several things, namely improve the system's functionality, usability, security, stability and performance; change the system's architecture or adjust it for another platform. Unfortunately, we don't have the detailed documentation on this system or a knowledgeable enough staff. How do we implement the desired changes? We have three systems with roughly the same functionality, which work on different platforms. As these systems supplement each other, users have to use all three of them. This makes their work more complicated (starting one system means first shutting down the other two) and adds a lot of extra work for the system administrators (when a new user is added, the data must be copied to all three systems). We want to have one system instead of three. We have a best-selling software solution and received an order from a major client to modify it. However, no company wants to undertake its maintenance. What shall we do? A software component was written by someone who is no longer with the company, and there is nobody capable of working on the system's maintenance. There is no documentation or comments in the program. What shall we do? E-engineering is a competitive tool for boosting profits and increasing productivity. It supports 24-hour-a-day operations while avoiding the burnout that is common among American techies who work grueling hours, according to Hossein. More than just a source of cheap labor, e-engineering makes it "a lot easier finding technical talent because we're working with an international labor pool," he adds. But, scheduling adjustments have to be made when working with colleagues in another time zone. Offsetting the advantages of running an around-the-clock business, communication among programmers can be tricky when there is a 10hour time difference. Ion Badulescu, a software engineer at Hydra WEB Technologies Inc., a New York City company that makes load balancers for Web

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Reg No: 521135115 servers, has encountered problems when working with developers in other parts of the world. Today, Badulescu works from his home in Irvine, Calif., but prior to that he worked for HydraWEB from his home country of Romania. "Conference calls with three or four people are difficult," he says. "Phone contact with a foreign country is chancy at best. The best way to communicate is via email." Q.4 List out the macro issues in project management and explain each. Ans. Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is sometimes conflated with program management, however technically that is actually a higher level construction: a group of related and somehow interdependent engineering projects. A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date, but can be by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast to business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent or semi-permanent functional work to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals[4] and objectives while honoring the preconceived project constraints.[5] Typical constraints are scope, time, and budget.[1] The secondaryand more ambitiouschallenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Today, relatively low-cost, trusted, security technology is readily available and easy to use. At the same time, powerful statistical tools that can be used to analyze situations under riskoften very effectivelyby individuals with little or no understanding of the advanced statistics or decision theory upon which these tools are based are available. And, with business globalization, people (distributed project-team members) have become, to a much greater extent, a fungible resource.

Three issues that can contribute to a project's success or failure. Enterprise-level project management systems typically include, but are not limited to, the collaborative use of packages such as: Microsoft Project Server Microsoft Project Professional

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft Exchange Microsoft Visual Studio Team Suite (used to develop custom Web Parts

for SharePoint) developers)

Microsoft Team Foundation Server (used for further collaboration among

Each of these applications has plenty of endogenous security built in, right out of the box. My concern in this article is the exogenous security that you must provide, in addition, so that unauthorized individuals don't have access to your project management applications and data. Security is a big, open-ended subject. What I'll do here is make the point that you can't assume that, just because you implement a number of layers of de rigeur, "by-the-book" security practices, your data is safe. To that end, I'll focus on system authentication and authorization and data encryption using digital certificates (the foundation of Public Key Infrastructure, or PKI). These are electronic credentials, issued by a certification authority (CA), that are associated with a public and private key pair. The certification authority certifies that the person who has been issued a digital certificate is indeed who he or she claims to be (see Reference 1 for further details). First, a little background information on, and then, how you might get a false sense of security from using PKI. Digital certificates are important because today's password authentication schemes are little more than security placebos. They perversely inspire abuse, misuse, and criminal mischief by deliberately making users the weakest link in the security chain. You're far more secure with a layered approach to authenticationone that starts with a digital certificate. More than any other security protocol or technology available today, PKI can define trust in a granular way. You can use its strengths to protect information about the status of your project from outside competitors or even inside personnel who might misuse information about your work-in-process. But, because of PKI's mystique, the all-too-frequent careless use of PKI can lead to unwanted consequences. (See Reference 2 for an account of what to believe and what to disbelieve about what you've been told by PKI marketers.) Today, the user interface to your PKI-based security system often starts with his or her use of a smart card. A smart card is a programmable device containing an integrated circuit that stores your digital certificate. These portable cards serve as positive, nonrefutable proof of your identity during electronic transactions. As such, they allow you to digitally sign documents and e-mail messages, encrypt outgoing emails to be deciphered only by their intended recipients, authenticate into a domain (certificate logon), and automatically log into Internet and Intranet Web sites. To use a smart card, a user must be issued a smart card certificate by his or her certificate authority. Smart cards traditionally take the form of a device the size of a credit card that is placed into a reader, but can they can also be USB-based devices or integrated into employee badges. And, smart cards can be combined with a PIN (which you can think of as a password) to provide two-factor authentication. Physical possession of the smartcard and knowledge of the PIN must be combined to authenticate successfully.

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115

Q.5 Describe the various steps in risk management listed below: Ans. a. Risk Identification: Taking into account information gathered in Risk assessment, an inventory of relevant risks to the Gene Bank operations should be made. The major risks to Gene Banks are germplasm mis-identification, unstable storage facilities and insufficient funding support. An extensive list of risks gathered in documents from five CGIAR Centers and Gene Bank of the Philippine Rice Research Institute, discussions with four USDA-ARS conservation and database management sites and information contained in various Gene Bank management literature has been compiled and is set out in Table 1 for seeds and Table 2 for clonal materials. The generic risk assessment tool for seed crops and clonal crops serves as the input forms for risks and other information required for a particular Gene bank. For this step, the general area of Gene bank operations and specific activity and the risk source/indicator should be identified. These can be selected from those listed in Table 1a and Table 2a, but need not be limited to these. Also, as part of the risk identification step, risk ownership should be identified. This means identifying the organizational unit or manager who is responsible for monitoring, analyzing, evaluating the risk and implementing the controls or contingency plans associated with the risk. Most of the risks identified will be managed by managers and staff within the Gene Bank or larger Genetic Resources Unit (or equivalent) in which the Gene Bank staff are organizationally located. Ans. b. Risk Analysis: Risk analysis covers both the potential impact (or consequence) of the identified risks, and their likelihood (probability). In the case of likelihood, an intrinsic likelihood was first considered, taking into account the nature of the risk and its probability in the absence of controls or other mitigations, and then adjusted for mitigating controls that were confirmed as being in place. To develop a quantitative risk assessment, a point system for the scales or levels of the likelihood and impact of risks was devised in the context of Gene Banking operations. The point system was simplified and, consistent with the approach taken by many CGIAR Centers for their enterprise wide risk management frameworks; a 3-point scale was proposed: 1 point (Low), 2 points (Medium), and 3 points (High) for both likelihood and impact. Intrinsic likelihood The likelihood levels table below provides suggested definitions for the likelihood scale. These likelihood levels can be amended to suit a particular Gene Banks conditions. Should a Gene Bank wish to initially simplify this further, a 2point scale could be adopted: 1 point (Low) and 2 points (High) for both likelihood and impact. Likelihood levels Low (1) Medium (2) High (3) Very unlikely to practically impossible; 0-10% of the time. (Example: one or no occurrence in ten years.) Occasional; 20-60% of the time. (Example: two or six occurrences in ten years.) Moderately frequent to frequent; Above 60% of the time. (Example: seven and more occurrences in ten years.)

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115

Ans. c. Risk Management Planning: Risk Management Planning is about defining the process of how to engage and oversee risk management activities for a project. Risk Management planning is an important part of project management. Having a plan on how to manage risk, allows one to task to plan versus innovating and deciding after the fact and in the midst how to handle a risk. The earlier Risk Management planning is engaged within increases the possibility of success of all risk management activities and processes especially if the process definition was created with input and buy-in from the project manager and key project stakeholders. The inputs for Risk Management Planning are: Project Scope Statement The Project Scope Statement documents the project scope including a description, major deliverables, project objectives, project assumptions, project constraints, and a statement of work. In Risk Management Planning, the project scope statement is commonly used for identifying project boundaries and assumptions. Project Management Plan The Project Management plan contains the WBS which is used in Risk Management Planning to determine possible areas where risks can occur. For example, if the WBS has usability testing being the last item completed after integrated testing. This is a risk. The usability of the application may have affect on how the information is passed into and out of the application. This could be considered a Project Management Planning Risk. Organizational process assets The organizations process assets may contain defined standards and policies pertaining to risk management. Process assets included are risk categories, roles and responsibilities, and processes of how to have a decision made. Enterprise environmental factors Enterprise environmental factors reveal the risk tolerance of the organization and the individuals involved in the project. For example, patient billing departments or leaders commonly have absolutely no risk tolerance for any impact to cash flow. This is especially true in non-for-profit organizations like hospitals. However educators and researchers have a high level or risk tolerance. Therefore in an academic medical center, one could have two ranges of risk tolerance. Understanding how much risk your stakeholders and organization are comfortable with help with decisions regarding the type, level, and amount of risk management to apply in the project. Ans. d. Risk Review: The credit environment in the majority of the Groups core markets remained generally benign throughout 2007, notwithstanding the turbulent market conditions in some western markets in the second half of the year triggered by the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the United States. The Groups strategy to pursue growth in Asia, Africa and the Middle East has resulted in no direct exposure to US sub-prime mortgages and extremely limited indirect exposure. The Groups liquidity remains strong and is being used to strengthen relationships with key clients and to continue to support growth opportunities. Market risk is tightly controlled using Value at Risk (VaR) methodologies complemented by stress testing. VaR increased in 2007 as a consequence of increased volatility and growth in the financial markets business of the Wholesale Bank.

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Reg No: 521135115 The Wholesale Banking portfolio remains robust with new provisions continuing at a low level. The absolute level of recoveries in 2007 was lower than in recent years due to a lower stock of problem accounts after several years of benign credit conditions, and good progress in management of these accounts. Forward credit portfolio quality indicators remain stable. The Wholesale Banking asset backed securities portfolio includes mortgage backed securities and collateralized debt obligations. This portfolio, representing around two per cent of assets, has been affected by the market dislocation but has had limited impact on the Groups performance. The asset backed securities portfolio continues to be closely monitored and proactively managed. Q.6 ABC Company implements got a very big project and they decided to allot the same to a new project manager, who joined the company recently. In order to execute the project successfully, what are the various phases in which the project lifecycle should be divided. Ans. The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the projects goals or objectives. Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. There is first an Initiation or Birth phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined, followed by a Planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks, an Execution phase, in which the project plan is executed, and lastly a Closure or Exit phase, that marks the completion of the project. Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so, the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity, and also objectively measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead, correct, or terminate. It is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. Why? Not only because each industry sector involves specific requirements, tasks, and procedures when it comes to projects, but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle management methodology. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers. Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. Lets take a closer look at whats important in each one of these stages: 1) Initiation In this first stage, the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to deliver the desired outputs. The project manager is appointed and in turn, he selects the team members based on their skills and experience. The most common tools or methodologies used in the initiation stage are Project Charter, Business Plan, Project Framework (or Overview), Business Case Justification, and Milestones Reviews. 2) Planning The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the end of the project. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of a criteria for the successful completion of each deliverable. The governance process is defined, stake holders identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. The most common tools or methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews. 3) Execution and controlling

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Reg No: 521135115 The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled. During the execution phase, the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements. In product and system development, a design resulting in a specific set of product requirements is created. This convergence is measured by prototypes, testing, and reviews. As the execution phase progresses, groups across the organization become more deeply involved in planning for the final testing, production, and support. The most common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and Score Cards, in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews. 4) Closure In this last stage, the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper completion. The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client, Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with the final delivered product), rewarding the team, a list of lessons learned, releasing project resources, and a formal project closure notification to higher management. No special tool or methodology is needed during the closure phase.

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0049 Project Management - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 2

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 Q.1 Write a short note on the following: Ans. a. Work Breakdown Structure: A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project. A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager. The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective; for example a program, project, and contract. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, subtasks, and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective. The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established. A work breakdown structure permits summing of subordinate costs for tasks, materials, etc., into their successively higher level parent tasks, materials, etc. For each element of the work breakdown structure, a description of the task to be performed is generated. This technique (sometimes called a System Breakdown Structure) is used to define and organize the total scope of a project. The WBS is organized around the primary products of the project (or planned outcomes) instead of the work needed to produce the products (planned actions). Since the planned outcomes are the desired ends of the project, they form a relatively stable set of categories in which the costs of the planned actions needed to achieve them can be collected. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign each project activity to one and only one terminal element of the WBS. In addition to its function in cost accounting, the WBS also helps map requirements from one level of system specification to another, for example a requirements cross reference matrix mapping functional requirements to high level or low level design documents. b. Estimation Approach: Project managers are under a lot of pressure to produce estimates of time and cost for systems development very early in a project, typically in the first two weeks. However, estimating a development project from outline requirements and not from a physical design is like a home buyer saying, Quote me a price for building a house, but I am not sure where I want the house located, or about the number of rooms, or whether it should be of brick or wood. It is not surprising that project estimates are as bad as they are, but that they can be made and met at all. Three approaches can be taken to estimating: 1. Using industry experience 2. Using the experience of ones own organization 3. Rolling up more or less detailed estimates of the project effort Using Industry Experience: Function Points

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Reg No: 521135115 Perhaps the most useful form of recorded industry experience comes in function point counts. Many people measure software efforts based on the number of lines of code. The trouble with this measure is that the same function involves many more lines in a low-level language than in a high-level language. Often, an algorithm coded in one language requires more lines to be coded in another language. A function point count is a more stable measure of software size than lines of code, because it is based on the number of inputs, outputs, files, and other measures of complexity. The International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) has put considerable effort into devising and maintaining standard methods for sizing software. Q.2 List and define in Brief all the tools for Post Implementation Review Ans. Completing a project" is not the same thing as ending the project management process. Simply finishing doesn't ensure that the organization benefits from the project's outcome. For example, after completing a yearlong project to establish a new quality management process for your organization, you want to make sure that what you set out to do was actually achieved. Your objective wasn't to simply deliver a process but rather, to deliver the process that addresses the specific business need you intended to meet. This is the real measure of success. To make the most of the benefits that the project can deliver, however, you also need to check to see if further improvements will deliver still greater benefit. The post project review is the last critical step in the project life cycle, as it allows an independent party to validate the success of the project and give confidence to the stakeholders that it has met the objectives it set out to achieve. This template helps you perform a Post Implementation Review by: Measuring the benefits and objectives Deciding whether the project was within scope Assessing the final deliverables produced Reviewing the project against schedule Comparing the expenditure against budget Stating the final outcome of the project The Post Implementation Review template also helps you to: Identify the key project achievements and milestones Document any lessons learned for future projects Communicate its success to stakeholders This Post Implementation Review template provides you with the steps needed to review a project and document its overall level of success. It includes all of the sections, tables and practical examples you need, to document a Post Implementation review today. Q.3 Define the Basic categories of performance management. Ans. Performance management (PM) includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas. Performance management as referenced on this page is a broad term coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s to describe a technology (i.e. science imbedded in applications methods) for managing both behavior and results, two critical elements of what is known as performance This is used most often in the workplace, can apply wherever people interact schools, churches, community meetings, sports teams, health setting, governmental agencies, and even political settings - anywhere in the world people interact with their environments to produce desired effects. Armstrong and Baron (1998) defined it as a strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors. It may be possible to get all employees to reconcile personal goals with organizational goals and increase productivity and profitability of an organization using this process. It can be applied by organizations or a single department or section inside an organization, as well as an individual person. The performance process is appropriately named the self-propelled performance process (SPPP). [citation needed] First, a commitment analysis must be done where a job mission statement is drawn up for each job. The job mission statement is a job definition in terms of purpose, customers, product and scope. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous key objectives and performance standards for each job position. Following the commitment analysis is the work analysis of a particular job in terms of the reporting structure and job description. If a job description is not available, then a systems analysis can be done to draw up a job description. The aim with this analysis is to determine the continuous critical objectives and performance standards for each job. Q.4 Write a short note on the following: Ans. a. Professional Responsibility: Professional Responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests. Conflicts of interest. This occurs where the same lawyer or firm is representing both sides in a lawsuit, or previously represented one side. In countries with the adversarial system of justice, a conflict of interest violates the right of each client to the undivided, zealous loyalty of his lawyer. Conflicts may also occur if the lawyer's ability to represent a client is materially limited by the lawyer's loyalty to another client, a personal relationship, or other reasons. Incompetent representation. Attorneys have a duty to provide competent representation, and the failure to observe deadlines or conduct thorough research is considered a breach of ethics. Mishandling of client money. Clients often advance money to lawyers for a variety of reasons. The money must be kept in special client trust accounts until

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Reg No: 521135115 it is actually earned by the lawyer or spent on court fees or other expenses. Fee-splitting arrangements. Attorneys may not split fees with non-attorneys, or with other attorneys who have not worked on the matter for which the client is represented. Disclosure of confidential information. Lawyers are under a strict duty of confidentiality to keep information received in the course of their representations secret. Absent law to the contrary, lawyers may not reveal or use this information to the detriment of their clients. Communication with represented parties. An attorney may not communicate directly with a person who they know to be represented by counsel with respect to a matter for which the attorney is seeking to communicate. For example, in a civil suit, the plaintiff's attorney may not speak to the defendant directly if the attorney knows that the defendant is represented by counsel without their attorney's express consent. Improper solicitation and advertising. Attorneys generally may not solicit business by personally offering their services to potential clients who are not already close friends or family members. Advertising by attorneys is also strictly regulated, to prevent puffery and other misleading assertions regarding potential results. b. Business Orientation: Although many firms have adopted the BPO concept, little to no empirical data existed substantiating its effectiveness in facilitating improved business performance. McCormack (2000) conducted an empirical study to explore the relationship between BPO and enhanced business performance. The research results showed that BPO is critical in reducing conflict and encouraging greater connectedness within an organization, while improving business performance. Moreover, companies with strong measures of BPO showed better overall business performance. The research also showed that high BPO levels within organizations led to a more positive corporate climate, illustrated through better organizational connectedness and less internal conflict. Another empirical study by Kohlbacher (2009) reveals that BPO is positively associated with customer satisfaction, product quality, delivery speed and timeto-market speed. For a central concept, one that has become something of a Holy Grail for 1990s managers, BPO has remained remarkably hard to pin down. Its champions argue that it is a new approach to management that replaces the rigid hierarchies of the past ("I report to my boss") with structures that are much flatter, more cooperative, more process-oriented ("I report to my customer."). Many of us have had experience with both types of organization and we know intuitively what BPO feels like. Yet, if you're like me, you want a more solid foundation on which to make decisions and recommendations. Most of the literature on business process orientation has been in the popular press and lacks a research or empirical focus. Although empirical evidence is lacking, several models have emerged during the last few years that have been presented as the high performance, process oriented organization needed in today and tomorrows world. Deming, Porter, Davenport, Short, Hammer, Byrne, Imai, Drucker, Rummler-Brache and Melan have all defined what they view as the new model of the organization. According to each models proponent, the building of this model requires a new approach and a new way of thinking about the organization which will result in dramatic business performance

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Reg No: 521135115 improvements. This new way of thinking or viewing your organization has been generally described as business process orientation. c. Personnel Productivity: Personnel Productivity pertains to the obligation of a lawyer to perform his duties in a fitting manner. Not only does this include a professional and legal approach to an attorneys duties, but also to the moral aspect of the profession, which is not always specified by the law. Personnel Productivity is also largely related to legal ethics, a guideline of appropriate conduct that a legal practitioner is obligated to perform both to his clients and to the court. One popular issue with regard to Personnel Productivity is conflict of interest." This situation usually occurs when a lawyer is closely related to or in intimate affinity with a person subjected to court rulings. This creates a predetermined bias for or against the potential client, which can influence a lawyers decisions, actions, and judgment. Lawyers are recommended, if not required, to refuse the person as a client. The most that a lawyer can do in this situation is refer the person to another legal practitioner or give general legal advices outside of court. Withdrawal from representation is another issue under the area of Personnel Productivity. Given certain circumstances, an attorney must discontinue representing a client, whether voluntarily or out of necessity. Many lawyers perform a voluntary withdrawal if they discover their client is the guilty party, such as in fraudulence, sexual assaults, or even murder. A clients failure to give the arranged fees can also result in withdrawal. If the attorney is not physically, emotionally, and mentally able to take on his responsibility, the withdrawal is also mandated by court. In terms of court duties, a lawyer should also make known to the court instances of perjury, or lying under oath. Misconduct of fellow attorneys, judges, or other legal practitioners should also be reported. As a professional, a lawyer is also not allowed to directly seek out for clients, as this somehow removes the latters freedom of decision. d. Conflict Management: Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievancesstanding up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law, mediation, and avoidance. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structureor social geometryof the case. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. In order for actual conflict to occur, there should be an expression of exclusive patterns, and tell why the conflict was expressed the way it was. Conflict is not just about simple inaptness, but is often connected to a previous issue. The latter refers to resolving the dispute to the approval of one or both parties, whereas the former concerns an ongoing process that may never have a resolution. Neither is it considered the same as conflict transformation, which seeks to reframe the positions of the conflict parties.

Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 Q.5 Comment on the following Ans. a. Importance of DMAIS in project management cycle The projected mantras of production management can be broadly identified as Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, Standardize (DMAIS). These projected mantras help in identifying, evaluating, and selecting the right improvement solutions for managing a project. The mantras also help in identifying the critical issues thus assisting the organization to adapt to the changes introduced through the implementation of different solutions. The phases associated with each projected mantra of production management are: 1. Define: benchmark, customer requirement, process flow map, quality function deployment, project management plan 2. Measure: data collection, defect metrics, sampling 3. Analysis: cause and effect, failure modes and effect analysis, decision and risk analysis, root cause analysis, reliability analysis 4. Improve: design of experiments, modeling, and robust design 5. Standardize: control charts, time series, procedural adherence, performance management, preventive activities displays the various phases of DMIAS. b. Knowledge areas of project management: A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of: Project plan developmentintegrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document. Project plan executioncarrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein. Integrated change controlcoordinating changes across the entire project. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of: Initiationauthorizing the project or phase. Scope planningdeveloping a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions. Scope definitionsubdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. Scope verificationformalizing acceptance of the project scope. Scope change controlcontrolling changes to project scope. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of: Activity definitionidentifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables. Activity sequencingidentifying and documenting interactivity dependencies.

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Reg No: 521135115 Activity duration estimatingestimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities. Schedule developmentanalyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project schedule. Schedule controlcontrolling changes to the project schedule. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of: Resource planningdetermining what resources (people, equipment, materials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities. Cost estimatingdeveloping an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activities. Cost budgetingallocating the overall cost estimate to individual work activities. Cost controlcontrolling changes to the project budget. A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It consists of: Quality planningidentifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality assuranceevaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Quality controlmonitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Q.6 What are the various SCMo soft wares available in project management? Explain each in brief. Ans. The various support software that may be used for managing projects are: 1. ARROW 2. FEDORA 3. VITAL 4. PILIN 5. MS EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 The ARROW Project It is a consortia of institutional repository solution, combining open source and proprietary Software Why Arrow Arrow is preferred support software because it: Provides a platform for promoting research output in the ARROW context Safeguards digital information Gathers an institutions research output into one place Provides consistent ways of finding similar objects Allows information to be preserved over the long term

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Reg No: 521135115 Allows information from many repositories to be gathered and searched in one step Enables resources to be shared, while respecting access constraints Enables effective communication and collaboration between researchers The vision of project ARROW: The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-prints, digital theses and electronic publishing. What did the ARROW project set out to achieve? ARROW project wanted to be a solution for storing any digital output. Their initial focus was on print equivalents such as thesis and journal articles among others. It provided solution that could offer on-going technical support and development past the end of the funding period of the project. What is ARROW now? Its in a development stage combining Open Source and proprietary software such as Fedora, VITAL, Open Journal Services (OJS). It is not a centralized or hosting solution. Every member has their own hardware and software. Why Fedora ARROW wanted a robust, well architected underlying platform and a flexible object-oriented data model to be able to have persistent identifiers down to the level of individual data streams. It accommodates the content model to be able to be version independent. Since the beginning of the project ARROW has worked actively and closely with Fedora and the Fedora Community. The ARROW projects Technical Architect is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and sits on Fedora Development Group. This association is reinforced by VTLS Inc. VTLS President is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and VITAL Lead Developer sits on Fedora Development Group Why VITAL VITAL refers to ARROW specified software created and fully supported by VTLS Inc. built on top of Fedora. It currently provides: 1. VITAL Manager 2. VITAL Portal 3. VITAL Access Portal 4. VALET Web Self-Submission Tool 5. Batch Loader Tool 6. Handles Server (CNRI) 7. Google Indexing and Exposure 8. SRU / SRW Support 9. VITAL architecture overview VITAL is part of creative development of ARROW institutional repositories. VITAL has the following features: 1. Inclusion of multimedia and creative works produced in Australian universities 2. Limited exposure nationally or internationally 3. Addition of annotation capability Presented By Prashant Balikai

Reg No: 521135115 4. Inclusion of datasets and other research output not easily provided in any other publishing channel 5. Being developed in conjunction with the DART (ARCHER) Project 6. Exploration of the research-teaching nexus tools that will allow value added services for repositories 7. Integration with or development of new tools that will allow value added services for repositories (for instance the creation of e-portfolios or CVs of research output of individual academics) PILIN Persistent Identifiers and Linking Infrastructure There has been a growing realization that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within universities. PILIN is a particular challenge for e-research communities where massive amounts of data are being generated without any means of managing this data over any length of time. The broad objectives are to: 1. Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders 2. Plan for a sustainable, shared identifier management infrastructure that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over archival lengths of time 3. Deploy a Worldwide Site Consolidation Solution for Exchange Server 2003 at Microsoft 4. Add Picture 5. Use Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 to consolidate more than 70 messaging sites worldwide into seven physical locations In this context, let us look at Microsoft Model Enterprises (MME).

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