major expeditions – chapter 19. spanish empire conquest of new spain hernan cortes conquered...

Download Major Expeditions – chapter 19. Spanish Empire Conquest of New Spain Hernan Cortes conquered Aztecs in 1521  600 Spanish soldiers Francisco Pizarro

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  • Major Expeditions chapter 19

  • Spanish Empire

  • Conquest of New SpainHernan Cortes conquered Aztecs in 1521600 Spanish soldiersFrancisco Pizarro conquered the Inca in 1533Fewer than 200 Spanish soldiersWhy?God, gold, and gloryHow?Guns, germs, and steel

  • Impact of Smallpox on the New World

  • Economy of New SpainAgricultureHaciendasPlantationsMiningSilver the Heart of the EmpireGoldUsed coercive laborIndian slaves, encomiendas, mitaLess than 50% of silver remained in SpainAt no point did American treasure imports make up more than 25% of Spains national revenueSpanish government occasionally went bankrupt

  • Encomendero holds land, 2 centuries of killing off natives propels need for slaves

    Spain rules Caribbean through administrative institutions:Governorshiptreasurycourtsprofessional magistrateslawyers/notarieschurch officials

    1510: increased Iberian immigrations= conquest SETTLEMENT

  • Sociedad de CastasPeninsularesCreolesMestizosMulattosNative IndiansBlack Slaves

  • Mid-16th Century, encomienda outlawedSpanish crown outlaws inheritance of encomienda to limit new nobility from risingGrants of land replace Indians as basis of work- MITA (forced labor turns- coercive!!!)

  • Government of New SpainNew Spain controlled by bureaucracyCouncil of IndiesTwo Viceroyalties (Mexico City & Lima)Ten AudienciasMake and enforce Spanish lawLocal magistrates applied the law, collected taxes, and assigned work required of Indian communitiesTreaty of TordesillasDivided the world between Spain & Portugal

  • Treaty of TordesillasTreaty of Saragossa: area of conflict --Moluccas islands (Indonesia) peace treaty between Spain and Portugal signed on 22 April of 1529 by King John III and the Emperor Charles V

  • Spanish CultureCatholic Church dominatesWidespread conversion of the Indians by Jesuits, et alBartolom de Las Casas (attempts to help Latin American injustice, but royal control overcomes)Constructed baroque cathedralsReligious schools and universitiesPoetrySor Juana Ins de la Cruz (1651-1695)Cathedral de Mexico built in stages between 1573-1813

  • Political ReformsThe Bourbon Reforms: 1707 Charles II died; no heir; Philip of Anjou (Bourbon family) became Charles III

    Reasons- Economic nationalism & desire for strong central government-instituted economic changes-administrative changes-military reforms(French bureaucracy used; tax tighten; navy reformed)Opposition: Jesuit Order (removed from Spain/ colonies)West Indies: New viceroyalties introduced to eliminate corruptionCreole removed from upper bureaucracy

  • Portuguese Empire

  • Portuguese Colonization in AsiaPortuguese use force to enter Asian trade marketsForced East Africa and Asia to pay tribute

    Control did not last longOverextended and Indian Ocean was too largeNot enough peopleDutch and English rivals

  • Portuguese BrazilMinor Portuguese nobles given strips of land to colonize and develop (capitaincies)Feudalism meets commercial agricultureSugar plantations using Indian, then African slavesPortugals most important colony by 1700Government established a bureaucratic structure with a royal governorBureaucrats were born and educated in PortugalBrazil never had university or printing pressesJesuits converted most natives to Christianity

  • Portuguese BrazilBrazil dominated world sugar production in the 17th century150 sugar plantations in 1600; 300 by 1630By 1700, 150,000 slaves worked on plantations50% of population were slavesBrazils dominance of sugar trade declined in 18th centuryCompetition from French, English, and Dutch colonies in the CaribbeanPrice of slaves increased; price of sugar declined

  • Sugar Plantations in the Americas

  • Brazils Age of GoldGold discovered inland in 1695 @ Minas GeraisStarted a massive gold rushMine gold using slaves150,000 slaves by 1775Export 3 tons of gold a year from 1735-1760Impact of goldRanching and farming were expanded (opened interior)Rio de Janeiro became the capital of the colonyNo native industries were developed in PortugalDestructive to natives;

  • Dutch Empire around the World

  • Dutch Colonization

  • Dutch Colonies in Africa & SE AsiaTake Portuguese strongholds in 17th centuryCape of Good Hope, Malacca, etc.Monopolize certain spicesCloves, nutmeg, mace, etc.Shipping proved most profitableShipped products between China, Japan, Indonesia, India, etc.Colonized Java

  • Enlightened Despotism Portuguese effort to improve mercantilismMarquis of Pombal (1755-1776) Prime Minister of Portugal reform effortBrazil became the center of reforms:1.Monopoly companies created to stimulate agriculture2.Abolish slavery3.Encourage Portuguese immigrants from Azores to settle /colonize the Amazon basins (cattle ranches)

  • Reactions / RevoltsNew GranadaComunero Revolt 1781 led by Juan Francisco Berbeo (a Creole)-protested against government tax increases that would reduce profits for the colonists and enlarged Spains profit-local colonists formed el comun or central committee to lead movment-Initial success; viceroy fled Bogota; With reinforcement from Spain the rebellion crushed and leaders punished.Significance: rebellion revealed different social class can unified for a common cause

    PeruIndian Uprising (Sierra Uprising) (1780)Led byJose Gabriel Condocanqui (Tupac Amaru)Issues: condition in the textile mills; mines, and villages (demanded better treatment)-rebellion took over La Paz in 1781-kidnapped the Spanish Governor Antonio de Arriago and hanged him-loss favor/support from the local Creole and Mestizo population*1781 Tupac Amaru captured and executed. All his family members were executed

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