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  • Slide 1
  • LOGO TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER Reza Ajie Saputra
  • Slide 2
  • www.themegallery.com Teaching Speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues TEACHING SPEAKING FOR YOUNG LEARNER Young Learners are individuals of very early age who are interested in many new things such as a foreign language, English.
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  • www.themegallery.com The meaning of speaking The difference between knowledge and skill Characteristics of spoken language Spontaneity Time-constraint INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Add Your Text here CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION Teaching Speaking For Young Learners The Basics Motivating Students to Speak Strategies that Encourage Participation Techniques to Teach Speaking DISCUSSIONDISCUSSION
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  • www.themegallery.com INTRODUCTION Characteristic of spoken language The Difference Between Knowledge and skill Time-Constraints Spontaneity The meaning of speaking
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  • INTRODUCTION Meaning of Speaking Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts". Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. www.themegallery.com
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  • INTRODUCTION Characteristics of spoken language: Speaking is a skill, just like swimming, driving a car, or playing ping-pong. Too often, in the traditional classroom, the learning of English has been relegated to linguistic knowledge only, e.g. knowledge of vocabulary and grammar rules, with little or no attention paid to practising language skill. www.themegallery.com
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  • INTRODUCTION Spontaneity In most situations, people do not plan ahead of time what they are going to say. The fact that speech is spontaneous means that it is full of false starts, repetitions, incomplete sentences, and short phrases. Should we expect the students to produce complete sentences in language classroom? www.themegallery.com
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  • INTRODUCTION Time-constraint The students must be able to produce unplanned utterances in real time; otherwise people will not have the patience to listen to them. Which of the following activities do you think would help to prepare students for real life speech in English? www.themegallery.com
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  • INTRODUCTION Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge: Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary) Functions (transaction and interaction) Social and cultural rules and norms (turn- taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants) www.themegallery.com
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  • DiSCUSSION Knowing the Basics Motivating Students to Speak Strategies That Encourage Participation Method to Speaking Technique to Teach Speaking Teaching Speaking For Young Learners
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  • DISCUSSION Teaching Speaking For Young Learners Teaching speaking for young language learners (YLLs) is an interesting and challenging duty for teachers for some considerations. In one hand, YLLs are individuals of very early age who are interested in many new things such as a foreign language, English. In this level, young learners seem to have the same proficiency in speaking that is novice level. The characteristic of novice level is the students ability to communicate minimally with learned material and oral production consists of isolated words and perhaps a few high-frequency phrases essentially no functional communication ability. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Knowing The Basics Young learners are like sponges, they soak up everything we say and how we say it. Thus clear and correct pronunciation is of vital importance, since young learners repeat exactly what they hear. What has been learned at an early stage is difficult to change later on. One of the rules that apply here is: slowly and steadily, through constant revision and recycling. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION always strive to achieve a positive and relaxed atmosphere in young learners classroom, as this proved a decisive factor in achieving maximum results. With the help of mixed activities, such as dialogues, choral revision, chants, songs, poems and rhymes students speaking abilities grow, their pronunciation gets better and their awareness of the language improves Interaction is an important way of learning. Therefore, increased oral emphasis should be included in our teaching to give the students as much speaking time as possible. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Motivating Students to Speak To motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should include many activities and strategies that attract students attention and make them interested in the lesson. Activities need to be child centered and communication should be authentic. the teacher should consider in the activities: a focus on meaning and value, not correctness; a focus on collaboration and social development; the provision of a rich context, and teaching the four skills through a variety of activities. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Strategies that Encourage Participation To motivate students in EFL contexts, teachers should include many activities and strategies that attract students attention and make them interested in the lesson. The teacher can use the model for teaching young learners by using IPA (Imitating-Practicing control-Autonomy) as the other strategy. Children love imitating. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Reading Aloud Doing a drill Common characteristics in successful speaking tasks Learning the Dialogues Interviewing someone, or being interviewed Designing speaking tasks Using group work in speaking tasks Songs, Poems, Rhymes and Chants Method To Teach Speaking
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  • DISCUSSION Learning the Dialogues Learning dialogues by heart is a definite no-no. It is much better and far more useful to substitute the words so that they are true to students and their world. Student uses his/her own variation, there is an obvious transition from pure imitation to conscious changing, which speeds up remembering and offers varied communicative opportunities. By imitating, sharing and discussing students benefit modeling, understanding and picking it up seem to be natural.. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION EXAMPLE : A: What time is it? B: Its 3:00. Why? A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come? B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION
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  • Songs, Poems, Rhymes and Chants Using songs, poems, rhymes and chants is a wonderful way of making students sing/talk and at the same time (unconsciously) work at their grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation. Try to include the above-mentioned activities by providing learners with those that require total physical response, shortly known as "TPR". www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION
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  • www.themegallery.com DISCUSSION
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  • www.themegallery.com DISCUSSION
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  • Reading Aloud Reading aloud will get you used to hearing your own voice and help you become more comfortable with delivering written material orally. It can also help you build your vocabulary so that you will stumble less frequently when speaking unfamiliar words. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Interviewing someone, or being interviewed It helps to prepare students for real life speech. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Doing a drill It needs to be supplemented with more realistic activities as the level increase.Also students must consider whom they are talking to and be able to check if they are being understood. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Designing speaking tasks and Using group work in speaking tasks One important consideration: Proficiency level of the students (challenging but not too difficult.) If the task is too easy or too difficult, the students may be demotivated. Advantages of using group work: More opportunities. More motivation. More authenticity. Different levels. More cooperation. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Techniques to Teach Speaking 1.Information-gap activities (Compare 2 Activities) Activity A www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION Activity B Use the same pictures, but cut them up, paste them on cards, and give each student a different picture. www.themegallery.com
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  • DISCUSSION 2. Dialogues and role-plays Example 1: Playing the roles in a dialogue Step 1. Practise the dialogue in pairs A: What time is it? B: Its 3:00. Why? A: Oh, I need to go to the store! Do you want to come? B: OK. Just a minute. I need to finish this first. Step 2. Ask a few pairs to pe