Litter vehicles

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<p>Litter vehicles</p> <p>Litter vehiclesLitter vehiclesThe litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons. Examples of litter vehicles include lectica (ancient Rome), jiao [] (China), kiu (Vietnam), sedan chair (England), litera (Spain), palanquin (France and India), liteira (Portugal), Woh (, Chinese style known as giao ) (Thailand), gama (Korea), kago and norimono (Japan) and tahtrevan (Turkey).definitionsA simple litter, often called a king carrier, consists of a sling attached along its length to poles or stretched inside a frame. The poles or frame are carried by porters in front and behind. Such simple litters are common on battlefields and emergency situations, where terrain prohibits wheeled vehicles from carrying away the dead and wounded.</p> <p>Korean gamaA Korean gama, circa 1890</p> <p>antiqvityIn pharaonic Egypt and many oriental realms such as China, the ruler and divinities (in the form of an idol) were often transported thus in public, frequently in procession, as during state ceremonial or religious festivals.In Ancient Rome, a litter called lectica or "sella" often carried members of the imperial family, but also other dignitaries and other members of the rich elite, when not mounted on horseback</p> <p>Sedan chairAn English sedan chair (circa late 18th century) at Eaton Hall</p> <p>chinaIn Han China the elite travelled in light bamboo seats supported on a carrier's back like a backpack. In the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties, wooden carriages on poles appear in painted landscape scrolls.A commoner used a wooden or bamboo civil litter (Chinese: ; pinyin: min2 jiao4), while the mandarin class used an official litter (Chinese: ; pinyin: guan1 jiao4) enclosed in silk curtains.The chair with perhaps the greatest importance was the bridal chair. A traditional bride is carried to her wedding ceremony by a "shoulder carriage" (Chinese: ; pinyin: jin y), usually hired. These were lacquered in an auspicious shade of red, richly ornamented and gilded, and were equipped with red silk curtains to screen the bride from onlookers.[2]</p> <p>Sedan chair (china)A public sedan chair in hong kong</p> <p>South asiaA palanquin, also known as palkhi, is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. It derives from the Sanskrit word for a bed or couch, pa:lanka.Palanquins are mentioned in literature as early as the Ramayana (c. 250BC).Palanquins began to fall out of use after rickshaws (on wheels, more practical) were introduced in the 1930s</p> <p>plaquinA photo of country made palanquin at Varanasi. C. 1890s</p> <p>indonasiaIn traditional Javanese society, the generic palanquin or joli was a wicker chair with a canopy, attached to two poles, and borne on men's shoulders, and was available for hire to any paying customer.[3] As a status marker, gilded throne-like palanquins, or jempana, were originally reserved solely for royalty, and later co-opted by the Dutch, as a status marker: the more elaborate the palanquin, the higher the status of the owner. The joli was transported either by hired help, by nobles' peasants, or by slaves.joliA bride is being carried in a joli</p>