Liberalism: Ancient and Modern Leo Strauss

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<ul><li> 1. Liberalism Ancient and ModernLeo Strauss (1968)Cristina Varela, Ciencia Poltica (2009-1) 1 of 15 10-2011</li></ul> <p> 2. Contents1. Concepts2. Power of education3. Ideal of democracy and democracy as it is4. Perspectives of liberalism: classic and modern doctrine5. Preface to Spinozas critique of religion: Teologico- Political predicament6. Critical view 1.What is liberal education 2.Liberal education and responsibility 3.The liberalism of classical political philosophy7. Index 4.On the Minos 5.Notes on Lucretius 6. How to begin to study the guide of the perplexed 7.Marsilius of Padua 8.An Epilogue 9.Preface to Spinozas critique of religionCristina Varela2 10. Perspectives on the good society 3. Concepts Liberalism ConservatismCommunismLiberal democracyProgressivism Classical andModern PoliticalPhilosophyCristina Varela 3 G.Almond 4. Liberal Education Liberal Liberal education is educationeducation istowards culture.liberation from Will consist in studying withvulgaritythe proper care the greatapeirokaliabooks which the greatestfor the greeksminds have left behind. Astudy which the moreexperienced pupils assist the Lack of experience inless experienced pupils,things beautifulincluding the beginners.Cristina Varela 4 5. It cannot be simplyindoctrinationLiberal education is education in a variety of cultures.Culture is any pattern of conduct common to any human group.Liberal education is literate education: education in letters orthrough letters.Cristina Varela5 6. Ideal of democracy&amp; democracy as it is Modern Democracy:Far from being universal aristocracy, would be mass rule were it not for the fact that the mass cannot rule, but is ruled by elites. Democracy is then not indeed mass rule, butmass culture.Mass Culture is a cultureElites: groupings of which can be appropriatedmen who for what by the meanest capacitiesever reason are onwithout an intellectual an top. moral effort, at a very lowmonetary price.Cristina Varela6 7. "Liberal education is theladder by which we try toascend from massdemocracy to democracyas originally meant.Liberal education is thenecessary endeavor tofound an aristocracy withindemocratic mass society."La educacin liberal es la escalera por la cualascendemos de la democracia de masa a lademocracia como fu originalmente concebida.La educacin liberal es el esfuerzo necesariopara fundar una aristocracia dentro de lasociedad democrtica de masas.Cristina Varela 7 8. "Philosophy is quest for wisdom or quest forknowledge regarding the most important, thehighest or the most comprehensive things;is virtue and is Education in thehappiness". However, Monologues intoNoesis highest sense is"Wisdom is a DialogueNoeseos philosophy. Plato inaccessible to man,and hence virtue and understanding of understanding happiness will beMetatheoryalways imperfect."Philosophy vs Politics Liberal Education demands "By becoming aware of the the complete break with the dignity of the mind, we Noise, Rush, cheapness, thoughtlessness of therealize the true ground of the Vanity Fair of thedignity of man and there withintellectuals as well as of their enemies.the goodness of society."Strauss 8 9. The word Liberal always have had a political meaning, is almost opposite to its present political meaning.Justice of a societyruled by gentlemenruling their own right?Gentlemans vs PhilosophersJust government isgovernment who rulesin the interest of thewhole society, and notmerely of a part. 9 10. Modern Doctrine Starts from the natural equality of all men. Sovereignty belongs to the people. Sovereignty as to guarantee the natural rights of each. It achieves this result by distinguishing between the sovereign and the government and by demanding that the fundamental governmental powers be separated from one another." Veo hombres piadosos que querran sofocar la libertad, como si la Classic Doctrinelibertad, ese gran privilegio del hombre, no fuese una cosa casi santa. Ms all veo otros que piensan llegar a ser libres atacando todas lascreencias; pero no veo a nadie que parezca percibir el vnculo estrecho y necesario que une la repblica, la religin y la libertad." Alexis de ToquevilleCristina Varela 10 11. The liberal temperPOSITIVISM in Greek PoliticsSartreEXISTENTIALISM"Siempre habr una diferencia no pequea entre sujetar a unamuchedumbre y gobernarHavelocka una sociedad." Natural Law: Descartes the great principles of reason and "The men who will hold power will be the men of equity. Burkethe learned professions.""En toda comunidad tiene queHamiltonhaber una obediencia, bajo elmecanismo de la constitucin estatal segn leyes de coaccin, pero al mismo tiempo un espritu de libertad, puestoque cada uno aspira a serHarm Principle convencido por la razn de que esa coaccin es conforme al derecho, a n de no caer encontradiccin consigo misma." Mill11 12. Aristotelian Political Science &amp; New Political Science1. For Aristotle, political science is identical to political philosophy. New political philosophy argues the distinction between philosophy and science.2. No natural awareness is genuine knowledge. New political science is no longer based in political experience, only scientic knowledge is genuine knowledge.3. According to the Aristotelian political science, views political things in the perspective of the citizen, it follows that language. The new political science cannot speak without having an elaborated technical vocabulary.4. Aristotelian political science evaluates political things. The new political science conceives of the principle of action as values which are merely subjective.5. Aristotelian man is the rational and political animal: zoonpolitikon/ connection between morality and law. The whole consist of essentially different parts. The new political science in the other hand is based on the fundamental premise that there are no essential differences: there are only difference of degree. According to the universal science of which the new political science is part, to understand a thing means to understand it in terms of its genesis or its conditions. New political science cannot admit that the common good is something that it is.12 13. Theologico-Political Predicament"Theologico-political predicament" refers to the ultimate results of the early modern attempt toseparate theology from politics.Spinoza: natural difference between nature andmorality. Everything that is, is natural. For Spinoza there are no natural ends, there is no natural end to man. A man end is not natural, butrational.13 14. Theologico-PoliticalEpicureanismTreatiseIs hedonism, the classicform of the critique ofreligion. Is so radicallySpinoza cannot legitimately deny themercenary that itpossibility of revelation. Philosophy, theconceives of theoreticalquest for evident and necessary doctrines as the meansknowledge, rest itself on an unevidentfor liberating the minddecision, on an act of will, just as faith. from the terrors ofreligion. EpicureanismHence the antagonism between Spinozaghts the religiousand Judaism, between unbelief and delusion because of itsbelief, is ultimately not theoretical, butterrible character.moral. Modern UnbeliefModern unbelief is no longer Epicurean.Fights because it is a delusion: regardless ofwether religion is terrible or comforting, quadelusion it makes men oblivious to the realgoods, of the enjoyment of the real goods,and thus seduces them into being cheated ofthe real.14 15. Critical View"The success of liberal politics and liberaleconomics frequently rests on irrational forms ofrecognition that liberalism was supposed toovercome. For democracy to work, citizens need todevelop an irrational pride in their own democraticinstitutions, and must also develop what Tocquevillecalled the art of associating, which rests onprideful attachment to small communities. Thesecommunities are frequently based on religion,ethnicity, or other forms of recognition that fallshort of the universal recognition on which theliberal state is based. The same is true for liberaleconomics. Labor has traditionally been understoodin the Western liberal economic tradition as anessentially unpleasant activity undertaken for thesake of the satisfaction of human desires and therelief of human pain." The end of history, FrancisFukuyama.15 16. State of World Freedom in 2009Free (89)PartlyFree (58)Not Free(47)Map reecting the ndings of Freedom Houses 2010 survey, concerning thestate of world freedom in 2009, which correlates highly with other measuresof democracy . Some of these estimates are disputed. 16 17. Index ofRecommendedNames Bibliography ndice Onomstico Bibliografa recomendadaAristotle Ackerman, Bruce: La justicia social en el Estado liberalBacon, Francis Aristteles: La poltica., tica a NicmacoBurke, Edmund Bentham, Jeremy: Anarchical FallaciesCohen, Hermann Buchanan, James: Social choice, Democracy and freeComte, Auguste markets.Democritus Constant,Benjamin: De la liberatad de los antiguosDescartes, Ren comparada con la de los modernos.Epicurus Gardner, Ron: The strategic inconsistenciy of ParetianGoethe Liberalism.Hamilton, Alexander Habermas, Jrgen: The structural transformation of the publicHavelock, Eric A. sphere., Conciencia moral y accin comunicativa.Hegel, Georg Hume, David: Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding,Heidegger, Martin Treatise of Human Nature.Herzl, Theodor Herlz, Theodor: The Jews State.Hobbes, Thomas Kant, Emmanuel: Teora y Praxis., Fundamentacin para unaKant, Emmanuel teora de las costumbres.Kojve, Alexandre Locke, John: Some Thoughts Concerning Education.,Locke, John Federalist PapersLucretius Mill, John Stuart: Sobre la libertad.Machiavelli Nietzsche, Friedrich: Also Sprach Zarathustra.Maimonides Nozick, Robert: Anarqua, Estado y Utopa.Marx, Karl Platn: La Repblica.Mill, J. St. Polanyi, Michael: Lifes irreductible structure.Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron Rawls, John: La justicia como equidad., Teora de la justicia, ElNietzsche, Friedrich liberalismo poltico.Plato Rousseau, Jean Jacques: El Contrato Social.Protagoras Spinoza, Baruch de: Tratado Teolgico Poltico., La ticaRosenzweig, Franz Strauss, Leo: On tyranny: Tyranny and wisdom, AlexanderRousseau, Jean Jaques Kojve., leostrausscenter.uchicago.eduSpinoza Toqueville, Alexis de: La Democracia en Amrica.Thomas Aquinas Wollstonecraft, Mary: A vindication of men rights.Thucydides17</p>