lekh dothraki - weebly therefore, the declension of a noun must be memorized right away. inanimate...

Download Lekh Dothraki - Weebly Therefore, the declension of a noun must be memorized right away. Inanimate nouns

Post on 05-Apr-2020

0 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Lekh Dothraki

    sunquan8094

    May 21, 2013

  • Foreword

    Firstly, I would like to say that this is a work in progress; lessons are still being created and added to this text. This is a written compilation of my YouTube lessons, and as the YouTube tutorials are ongoing at the time of writing, there will be many additions to this text.

    Next, I have some people to thank. First and foremost, I would like to thank you, the reader, for your continued interest in learning the Dothraki language. You, along with the many others who have obtained this book in one way or another, have encouraged me to step in and help you learn such an interesting language.

    I wish that you enjoy learning this language. Dothras chek.

    1

  • Contents

    I Preliminaries 4

    1 Pronunciation 5

    II Grammatical Lessons 7

    1 Personal Pronouns and Affirmative Present Tense 8

    2 Negative Present Tense 10

    3 Accusative Case of Inanimate Nouns 12

    4 Nominative Plural and Accusative of Animate Nouns 14

    5 Accusative of Personal Pronouns and Future Tense of Verbs I 16

    6 Future Tense of Verbs II 18

    7 Adjectives I: “Being” an Adjective 20

    8 Adjectives II: Adjectives That Modify Nouns 22

    9 Genitive Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns 24

    10 Genitive Case of Personal Pronouns 26

    11 Past Tense of Verbs 27

    12 Allative Case of Animate and Inanimate Nouns 29

    13 Allative Case of Personal Pronouns 31

    14 Informal Imperative 33

    15 Ablative Case of Nouns and Personal Pronouns 35

    16 Expressing “Being” a Noun 37

    17 Numbers 1-10 38

    18 Negating Adjectives 40

    2

  • 19 Comparing with Adjectives 41

    20 Yes-and-No Questions 43

    21 Relative Clauses with Inanimate Nouns 45

    22 Prepositions I: Over and Under 47

    23 Modal Auxiliary Verbs 49

    24 Vocal Auxiliary Verbs 51

    25 Creating New Adjectives 53

    26 Numbers 11-19 55

    27 Simple Nominalization and Manner Adverbs 57

    28 Relative Clauses with Animate Nouns 59

    29 Prepositions II: Front and Behind 61

    III Conversational Lessons 62

    1 M’athchomaroon 63

    2 Hash Yer Dothrae Chek? 64

    3 Aena Vezhvena 65

    IV Appendix 66

    1 Grammar Reference 67 1.1 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    1.1.1 Declension Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 1.1.2 Personal Pronoun Declension Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 1.1.3 Demonstrative Pronoun Declension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 1.1.4 Relative Pronoun Declension Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 1.1.5 Interrogative Pronoun Declension Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    1.2 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 1.2.1 Conjugation Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    1.3 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1.3.1 Degree of Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    1.4 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    2 Dictionary of Vocabulary 70

    3

  • Part I

    Preliminaries

    4

  • Chapter 1

    Pronunciation

    Every language has a unique pronunciation scheme, even though other languages may use some of the same sounds but represent them entirely differently in writing. For this reason, I have put sound approximations in languages other than English so that one will have a better idea of how the language sounds. For the sake of completeness, I have also included the International Phonetic Alphabet letter associated with the sound.

    Vowels

    • a: [a] (English father, Spanish casa)

    • e: [e] (English set, Spanish beber)

    • i: [i] (English bean, Japanese kirin)

    • o: [o] (English cocoa)

    Consonants

    • ch: [tS] (English chafe)

    • d: [d] (English dorm)

    • f : [f] (English fief )

    • g: [g] (English gig)

    • h: [h] (English high)

    • j: [dZ] (English jive)

    • k: [k] (Japanese katakana)

    • kh: [x] (Klingon Hol, Lojban xu do)

    • l: [l] (English live)

    • m: [m] (English moon)

    • n: [n] (English null)

    5

  • • q: [q] (Klingon qaw)

    • r: [r/R] (Spanish querer)

    • s: [s] (English Seuss)

    • sh: [S] (English shoe)

    • t: [t] (English tat)

    • th: [T] (English thug)

    • v: [v] (English vest)

    • w: [w] (English wow)

    • y: [j] (English yay)

    • z: [z] (English pizzazz )

    • zh: [Z] (English measure, French bonjour)

    Epenthesis

    Epenthesis is the adding of vowels in order to aid pronunciation. You will need to do this often because of the frequent “dropping” of endings you must do. Add the letter e to the end of a word when a word ends with:

    • the letters w, q, and g

    • a double consonant (note that cch, kkh, and ssh are double consonants)

    • consonant clusters ending in the letters w, r, l, y

    Stress

    If a word ends in a consonant, stress is applied on the final syllable. If a word ends in a vowel, stress is applied on the first syllable.

    6

  • Part II

    Grammatical Lessons

    7

  • Lesson 1

    Personal Pronouns and Affirmative Present Tense

    Vocabulary

    Nouns

    • anha: I

    • yer: you

    • me: he, she, it

    • kisha: we

    • yeri: you (plural)

    • mori: they

    Verbs

    • thirat: live

    • nesolat: learn

    Text

    Anha thirak, yer thiri, me thira, kisha thiraki, yeri thiri, mori thiri. Anha nesok, yer nesoe, me nesoe, kisha nesoki, yeri nesoe, mori nesoe.

    Grammar

    As with most languages, Dothraki has verbs that need to be conjugated. A conjugated verb often looks differently from its dictionary form.

    There are two conjugations in Dothraki, -at and -lat verbs. At first glance, a verb can be categorized into either conjugation almost immediately. -at verbs are identified as verbs that end in “-at” and not “-lat,” while -lat verbs end in “-lat.” There will be exceptions to the rule, but we

    8

  • will cover that in a later lesson. For every verb tense, Dothraki has conjugations for affirmative and negative polarity, meaning that there are conjugations for verbs in sentences such as “I ate” and “I did not eat.” In this lesson, we will cover only the affirmative present tense. It is worth noting that the subject of the verb cannot be dropped, unlike in Romance languages, therefore the pronouns will be kept in the following tables.

    Verb Type -lat -at

    Person Singular Plural Singular Plural

    First Person anha -k kisha -ki anha -ak kisha -aki

    Second Person yer -e yeri -e yer -i yeri -i

    Third Person me -e mori -e me -a mori -i

    Verb nesolat thirat

    Person Singular Plural Singular Plural

    First Person anha nesok kisha nesoki anha thirak kisha thiraki

    Second Person yer nesoe yeri nesoe yer thiri yeri thiri

    Third Person me nesoe mori nesoe me thira mori thiri

    Practice

    1. Conjugate the following verbs in the affirmative present tense.

    (a) dothralat

    (b) ifat

    2. Translate into English.

    (a) Anha thirak. Yer nesoe.

    (b) Kisha nesoki. Me thira.

    3. Translate into Dothraki.

    (a) We live. They learn.

    (b) He learns. You all live.

    9

  • Lesson 2

    Negative Present Tense

    Vocabulary

    Nouns

    • alegra: duck [i]

    • eshina: fish [i]

    • hrakkar: lion [a]

    Verbs

    • ovethat: fly

    • zerqolat: swim

    • vrelat: leap [-at]

    Text

    Alegra ovetha. Anha vos ovethok. Yeri vos ovethi. Me vos ovetho. Kisha vos ovethoki. Eshina zerqoe. Anha vos zerqok. Yeri vos zerqoo. Me vos zerqoo. Kisha vos zerqoki. Hrakkar vrela. Anha vos vrelok. Yeri vos vreli. Me vos vrelo. Kisha vos vreloki.

    Grammar

    The negative conjugations of all tenses contain the auxiliary verb “vos,” which literally means “not.” It has been included in every conjugation in the following tables. The “+” sign before the ending indicates that you must drop the letter before it.

    Verb Type -lat -at

    Person Singular Plural Singular Plural

    First Person anha vos +ok kisha vos +oki anha vos +ok kisha vos +oki

    Second Person yer vos -o yeri vos -o yer vos -i yeri vos -i

    Third Person me vos -o mori vos -o me vos -o mori vos -i

    10

  • Verb Type dothralat ifat

    Person Singular Plural Singular Plural

    First Person anha vos dothrok kisha vos dothroki anha vos ifok kisha vos ifoki

    Second Person yer vos dothrao yeri vos dothrao yer vos ifi yeri vos ifi

    Third Person me vos dothrao mori vos dothrao me vos ifo mori vos ifi

    Practice

    1. Translate into English.

    (a) Hrakkar vos zerqoo. Me vrela.

    (b) Eshina zerqoe. Me vos ovetho.

    2. Translate into Dothraki.

    (a) He learns. The lion does not fly.

    (b) We swim. The duck lives.

    11

  • Lesson 3

    Accusative Case of Inan