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Psycology

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1ESSENTIALS OF UNDERSTANDINGPSYCHOLOGY 8TH EDITIONBy Robert Feldman

Ch#12: DEVELOPMENT

MODULE 27: Nature and Nurture and Prenatal DevelopmentHow do psychologists study the degree to which development is an interaction of hereditary and environmental factors?

What is the nature of development before birth?

What factors affect a child during the mothers pregnancy?2Developmental PsychologyStudy of the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout lifeNature-nurture issueDevelopmental psychologists typically take an interactionist position 3Determining the Relative Influence of Nature and NurtureGenetically control laboratory animals and place in varied environments

Identical twins4

Developmental Research TechniquesCross-sectional ResearchCompares people of different ages at the same point in timeDifferences among groups of people

Longitudinal ResearchTraces the behavior of one or more participants as the participants ageChange in behavior over time5Developmental Research TechniquesSequential ResearchCombines cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches by taking a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time6Prenatal Development: Conception to BirthThe Basics of GeneticsChromosomesRod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary informationGenesSmaller units through which genetic information is transmittedComposed of sequences of DNA

7Prenatal Development: Conception to BirthThe Human Genome ProjectScientists mapped the specific location and sequence of every human gene Gene therapyHealth-care providers inject genes to correct particular diseases directly into a patients bloodstream8The Extraordinary NewbornReflexesUnlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuliRooting reflexSucking reflexGag reflexStartle reflexBabinski reflex9The Extraordinary NewbornDevelopment of the Senses: Taking in the WorldVisual abilities grow rapidly after birthHabituation Decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus 10The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodPhysical DevelopmentDuring first year of life children typically triple birthweight Height increases by about half11

Figure 4 of Module 28The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodDevelopment of Social Behavior: Taking on the WorldAttachmentThe positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual Konrad LorenzImprinting 12The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodHarry Harlows study on attachmentWire monkey versus cloth monkey13

Figure 6 of Module 28The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodAssessing AttachmentMary AinsworthAinsworth strange situation Securely attached Avoidant Ambivalent Disorganized-disoriented 14The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodThe Fathers RoleNumber of fathers who are primary caregivers for their children has grown significantly Nature of attachment can be similar

15The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodSocial Relationships with PeersHelps children interpret the meaning of others behavior and develop the capacity to respond appropriately Helps children learn physical and emotional self-control

16The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodThe Consequences of Child Care Outside the HomeHigh-quality care centers can positively impact child Low-quality child care provides little or no gain and may even hinder development 17The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodCognitive Development: Childrens Thinking About the WorldPiagets Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentConcrete operational stage 7 to 12 years of age Reversibility Formal operational stage12 years of age to adulthoodAbstract, formal, and logical thinking18Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development19Figure 9 of Module 28

The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle ChildhoodVygotskys View of Cognitive Development: Considering CultureCognitive development occurs as a consequence of social interactions in which children work with others to jointly solve problemsZone of proximal development (ZPD)Level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her ownScaffolding20Adolescence: Becoming an AdultWhat major physical, social, and cognitive transitions characterize adolescence? 21Moral and Cognitive Development: Distinguishing Right from WrongKohlbergs Theory of Moral DevelopmentThree-level sequenceJudgments, not moral behaviorMoral development in women

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Figure 2 of Module 29AdolescenceDevelopmental stage between childhood and adulthoodSocial Development: Finding Oneself in a Social WorldEriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development: The Search for IdentityIdentity-versus-role-confusion stageIdentity Intimacy-versus-isolation stageEarly adulthoodFocuses on developing close relationships with others

23Social Development: Finding Oneself in a Social WorldEriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development: The Search for IdentityGenerativity-versus-stagnation stageMiddle adulthoodAbility to contribute to ones family, community, work, and society, and to assist the development of the younger generationEgo-integrity-versus-despair stageLater adulthood until deathSense of accomplishment24Social Development: Finding Oneself in a Social WorldStormy Adolescence: Myth or Reality?Research shows that adolescence is not a period fraught with stress and unhappiness as once thought, but nevertheless does have some strifeAdolescent egocentrismState of self-absorption in which a teenager views the world from his own point of viewPersonal fablesBelief that ones experience is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else25Social Development: Finding Oneself in a Social WorldAdolescent SuicideThird leading cause of death for adolescents Warning signs:26School problemsSelf-destructive behaviorLoss of appetite or excessive eatingWithdrawal from friends and peersSleeping problems Signs of depressionPreoccupation with deathPutting affairs in order, giving away prized possessions Explicit announcement of thoughts of suicide AdulthoodWhat are the principal kinds of physical, social, and intellectual changes that occur in early and middle adulthood, and what are their causes?

How does the reality of late adulthood differ from the stereotypes about that period?

How can we adjust to death? 27Physical Development: The Peak of HealthFor most people, early adulthood marks the peak of physical healthAround age 25, the body becomes slightly less efficient and more susceptible to disease

28Social Development: Working at LifePeople typically launch themselves into careers, marriage, and families

Midlife transitionPeriod when people may begin to question their livesMidlife crisis

29Marriage, Children, and Divorce: Family TiesChanges in marriage and divorce trends have doubled the number of single-parent households in the U.S. over the last two decades

Economic and emotional consequences for the single-parent households30Marriage, Children, and Divorce: Family TiesChanging Roles of Men and Women: The Time of Their LivesMore women act simultaneously as wives, mothers, and wage earners

Womens Second ShiftAdditional work performed by women with a career and home responsibilities 31The Later Years of Life: Growing OldPhysical Changes in Late Adulthood: The Aging Body Genetic Preprogramming Theories of AgingSuggest that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproductionWear-and-Tear Theories of AgingSuggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply work less efficiently as people age 32The Later Years of Life: Growing OldCognitive Changes: Thinking in Late Adulthood Memory Changes in Late Adulthood: Are Older Adults Forgetful? Alzheimers diseaseProgressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities33The Later Years of Life: Growing OldThe Social World of Late Adulthood: Old but Not AloneDisengagement Theory of AgingAging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levelsLife review

34The Later Years of Life: Growing OldThe Social World of Late Adulthood: Old but Not AloneActivity Theory of Aging Late adulthood should reflect a continuation, as much as possible, of the activities in which people participated during the earlier part of their lives Life review 35Adjusting to Death Elisabeth Kbler-Rosss Five Stages DenialAngerBargainingDepressionAcceptance 36