Lassa fever in nigeria

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Post on 10-May-2015



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<ul><li>1.A N A D A P T A T I O N F R O M C D C P R E S E N T A T I O N , W H O F A C T S H E E T S A N D N E M A E P I D E M I C S U P D A T E . A N U G O M A . E M E K A Lassa Fever Presentation. </li></ul> <p>2. Welcome &amp; Introductions 2 Logistics Emergency exits Restrooms 3. Agenda 3 Lassa fever Disease Importance of Topic. Clinical Signs and Symptoms. Diagnosis and Treatment Preventing Lassa fever 4. What is Lassa Fever? 4 A viral haemorrhagic fever caused by the Arenavirus Lassa. A single stranded RNA virus that is animal- borne. This was discovered following the death of two Nurses in Nigeria in 1969 and named after the town in Borno state, Nigeria, where it was first discovered. Transmitted from rodents to humans. The species of rats transmitting this disease is prevalent in West Africa. (The multimammate rat, mastomys species-complex), and is spread via their urine and droppings. 5. What is Lassa Fever? 5 There is secondary human to human transmission, via body fluids exchange or in hospitals, via reused needles or contaminated medical equipment The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with these materials or via cuts and sores or via poorly stored food (as Mastomys rodents are home scavengers) It can also be airborne via inhalation of tiny particles in air contaminated with rodents excreta. Also since mastomys are consumed as food source, it may also occur via direct contact when theyre caught and prepared for food. 6. What is Lassa Fever? 6 Its seasonal, with clusters in late rainy and early dry season, affecting all age groups and both sexes. Its is endemic in areas of West Africa including Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Annual incidence of 100,000 to 300,000 with approximately 5,000 deaths in West Africa. Incubation period is 5-21 days 7. Importance of Topic. 7 There is a recent outbreak in Nigeria over the past 7weeks, which has claimed 40 lives, with Edo state accounting for 22 of this. 11 of the 36 states in Nigeria have been affected by this and a total of 397 cases have been reported, out of which 87 have been confirmed. 397 cases 40 deaths 12 States 8. Map of States With Lassa fever Cases in Nigeria 8 9. Graphical Display of Prevalence in Nigeria 9 1 15 326 1 1 5 6 5 4 29 4 Prevalence of lassa Fever in Nigeria as at 12th Feb 2012 Anambra Ebonyi Edo Gombe Lagos Nasarawa Ondo Plateau Rivers Taraba Yobe Anambra 1 Ebonyi 15 Edo 326 Gombe 1 Lagos 1 Nasarawa 5 Ondo 6 Plateau 5 Rivers 4 Taraba 29 Yobe 4 10. Clinical Signs and Symptoms 10 Gradual fever onset Headache Malaise Other Non-specific symptoms Pharyngitis Myalgia, retro-sternal pain Cough Gastrointestinal symptoms Few have the Classic symptoms of : - Bleeding - Neck/facial swelling - Shock 11. Clinical Signs and Symptoms 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Swollen Neck or Face Bleeding Deafness Conjunctivitis/Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Abdominal Pain/Tenderness Cough Dizziness Retro-sternal Pain Headache Fever Arthralgias/Myalgias Sore throat/Pharyngitis Weakness Vomiting Diarrhea Chills Lymphadenopgathy Confusion Percent 12. Clinical Signs and Symptoms 12 Case fatality of Hospitalized cases:15- 20% Its severe in pregnant women and their offspring. -Increase 3rd Trimester mortality (&gt;30%) -Increased fetal/neonatal mortality (&gt;85%) Deafness is a common sequela, not related to severity of acute illness, maybe bilateral/unilateral and may persist for life in one-third of those affected. 13. Diagnosis and Treatment 13 Clinical diagnosis is often difficult ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) for antigen, IgM, and IgG Postmortem tissue Immunohistochemistry Reverse trancription-PCR for reasearch. Supportive Measures Drug of Choice is: Ribavirin -Most effective when started within first 6days of illness. -It is presently contraindicated in pregnancy but maybe warranted if mother is at risk) -Doesnt reduce incidence of severity of deafness. -Side effects are: reversible mild hemolysis and suppression of erythropioesis 14. Preventing Lassa Fever 14 Avoid contact with Mastomy rodents and bush burning Store food properly in rodent-proof containers Keep homes clean and discourage rodent entry. Using rodent as food source is discouraged. Clean traps and dispose carcass neatly. Prevent person-person transmission via use of PPEs (Masks,Gloves,Gowns and Goggles) especially for health workers Sterilize equipment after use Isolate infected patients from contacts. 15. Questions 15 </p>