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  • WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Cutting Processes

    Simulation Techniques in Manufacturing Technology

    Lecture 7

    Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering

    Chair of Manufacturing Technology

    Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. F. Klocke

  • Seite 1 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Modeling of Machining5

    Hard machining4

    Cutting processes with parallel translation3

    Cutting processes with rotary motion2

    Introduction1

    Outline

  • Seite 2 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Breakdown of the techniques involving a rotational main movement

    Turning work piece

    rotation tool translation

    Milling tool- rotation work piece-

    translation

    Boring tool rotation tool translation

    Sawing tool rotation tool translation

    main movement main movementmain movementmain movement

    subsidiary movement sub. movement sub. movement sub. movement

  • Seite 3 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Breakdown of the techniques involving a translational main movement

    broaching multi teeth tool feed due to tool geometry high surface quality high accuracy high tool costs inflexible

    planing Cutting motion by work

    piece Tool feed Stepwise, linear cutting

    motion Successive feed

    movement Machining of large, planar

    areas

    shaping Cutting motion by tool workpiece feed Stepwise, linear cutting

    motion Successive feed

    movement Machining of large, planar

    areas

    tool

    work piece

    track

  • Seite 4 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Modeling of Machining5

    Hard machining4

    Cutting processes with parallel translation3

    Drilling2.3

    Milling2.2

    Turning2.1

    Cutting processes with rotary motion2

    Introduction1

    Outline

  • Seite 5 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Modeling of Machining5

    Hard machining4

    Cutting processes with parallel translation3

    Drilling2.3

    Milling2.2

    Turning2.1

    Cutting processes with rotary motion2

    Introduction1

    Outline

  • Seite 6 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Example: rough turning

    Source: Widia

  • Seite 7 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Example: finishing

    Source: Widia

  • Seite 8 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Terms at the cutting edge

    tool shank

    cutting direction

    major cutting edge S

    major flank face A

    minor flank face A

    minor cutting edge S

    rake face A

    corner radius

    feed direction

  • Seite 9 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition of the tool cutting edge angle r

    tool reference Plane Pr

    tool orthogonal plane Po

    tool cutting edge plane Ps

  • Seite 10 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition tool cutting edge angle r

    trace of theworking plane Pf

    tool

    trace of the tool cutting edge plane PS

    tool reference plane Pr

    feed direction

    r

    r

    trace of the tool orthogonal plane Po

  • Seite 11 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition of the inclination angle s

    working plane Pf

    tool cutting edge plane PS

    tool reference plane Pr

  • Seite 12 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition of the inclination angle s

    tool

    trace of the working plane Pf

    tool cutting edge plane PS

    major cutting edge S

    trace of the tool reference plane Pr

    cutting direction

    s+-

  • Seite 13 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition of the rake angle

  • Seite 14 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Definition of the angles at the cutting edge

    tool trace of the flank face plane A

    trace of the rake face plane A

    trace of the tool back plane Pp

    trace of the tool reference plane Pr

    tool orthogonal plane Po

    expected cutting direction

    expectedfeed direction

    o

    o

    o

  • Seite 15 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Tool variants in longitudinal cylindrical turning

    right hand side cutting

    left hand side cutting

    neutral

  • Seite 16 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Facing (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.1)

    cross face turning

    tool

    workpiece

    longitudinal face turning

    workpiece

    tool

    cross parting off

    tool

    workpiece

    Source: Sandvik Coromant

  • Seite 17 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Facing (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.1): cross / longitudinal face turning

  • Seite 18 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Facing (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.1): cross parting off

  • Seite 19 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Cylindrical turning (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.2)

    longitudinal-cylindrical turning

    tool

    workpiece

    cross-cylindrical turning

    tool

    workpiece

    centreless rough turning

    tool

    workpiece

    Source: Iscar, Ceratizit

  • Seite 20 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Threatening (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.3)

    workpiece

    tool

    thread turning

    workpiece

    tool

    chasing

    workpiece

    tool

    tapping

    thread turning (external) thread turning (internal)

    Source: Garant, Seco, Ceratizit

  • Seite 21 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Profile turning (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.5)

    trepanning grooving

    tool

    workpiece

    cross-profile turning

    workpiece

    tooltool

    workpiece

    DIN 8589-1

  • Seite 22 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Hob turning (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.4)

    tool

    workpiece

  • Seite 23 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Contour turning (DIN 8589-1: ON 3.2.1.6)

    copy turning

    tool

    workpiece

    reference formed part

    kinematic-contour turning

    workpiece

    toolgear

    NC-contour turning

    NCtool

    workpiece

    Source: Sandvik Coromant

  • Seite 24 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Internal turning

    skimming

    tool

    workpiece

    undercut

    tool

    workpiece

    cut in

    workpiece

    tool

    DIN 8589-1

    Source: Iscar

  • Seite 25 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Internal turning tools

    Source: Sandvik

  • Seite 26 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Modeling of Machining5

    Hard machining4

    Cutting processes with parallel translation3

    Drilling2.3

    Milling2.2

    Turning2.1

    Cutting processes with rotary motion2

    Introduction1

    Outline

  • Seite 27 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Milling processes DIN 8589-3

    3.2.3

    milling

    DIN8589-3

    3.2.3.1

    slab / facemilling

    3.2.3.2

    circularmilling

    3.2.3.6

    formmilling

    3.2.3.3

    helicalmilling

    3.2.3.4

    hobbing

    3.2.3.5

    profilemilling

  • Seite 28 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Face milling (DIN 8589-3: ON 3.2.3.1)

  • Seite 29 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Face milling (DIN 8589-3: ON 3.2.3.1)

  • Seite 30 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Slab milling (ON 3.2.3.1): face- and peripheral milling

    face milling Workpiece surface is generated by

    face of the milling tool

    peripheral milling Workpiece surface is generated by

    peripheral surface of the milling tool

    tool

    workpiece

    r

    sP

    pa

    n

    zf

    fv

    tool

    workpiece

    fv

    zf

    eacv

    n

  • Seite 31 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Up- and down milling

    ae

    fz

    n

    Fc

    Ff

    down milling

    vc

    vt

    up milling

    fz

    n

    FcFf

    vtUp- and down milling

    up milling part

    down milling part

    vt

  • Seite 32 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Tool-in-hand system: peripheral milling

    workpiece

    tool

    trace of

    trace of Pr

    ps PP

    of PP

    EAc

    E

    == 0

    fv

    zf

    cv

    ea

  • Seite 33 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Tool-in-hand system: face milling

    trace of theentrance plane

    workpiece

    tool

    trace of

    trace of

    trace of

    trace of

    n

    fvoP

    fP

    E

    c

    A

    ea

    rPzf

    par

    sP

    pP

    n

    zf

    f

  • Seite 34 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Contact conditions and cutting edge geometry in face milling

    ae

    ae2C

    ae1

    entry plane

    vc

    vf

    s

    n

    fz

    =0

    tangential plane

    cutting C-C

    CA -A

    +E

    n

    view Atool

    contact types

    UT

    Sb

    p

    K

    S Sa V Va

    tool cutting edge

    A

    fz

    ap bB

    plane B-B

    B

    n

    2Da

    arccos eii =

    sina

    b p=rsinsinzfh

    =

    (fz

  • Seite 35 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Contact conditions depending on the radial and axial rake angle

    S - contact T - contact ST - contact

    U - contact V - contact SV - contact

    workpiecemillingcutter

    insertdatum plane

    S

    T T

    S

    SVV

    U

    f > 0p > 0

    f > 0p < 0

    f > 0p = 0

    f < 0p < 0

    f < 0p > 0

    f = 0p > 0

  • Seite 36 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Precision milling operations

    ap1

    ap2fz2

    fz1

    apap

    fz

    fz

    finish-milling

    no. of teeth 10 to 60ap = 0.3 bis 1 mm

    fz = 0.3 bis 0.5 mm

    no. of teeth 1 bis 6

    wide finish-milling

    ap = 0.05 to 0.2 mm

    fz = 0.5 bis 6 mm

    fz2 = 2 to 5 mm

    finish-milling with planing knivesand wide finishing cutting edgeno. of planing knives 20 to 30no. of wide finishing cutting edges 1 to 2finishing cutting edges

    wide finishing cutting edges

    ap1 = 0.5 to 2 mmfz1 = 0.1 to 0.3 mm

    ap2 = 0.03 to 0.05 mm

  • Seite 37 WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

    Circular milling (DIN 8589-3: ON 3.2.3.2)

    workpiece

    vf

    apnw