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  • Slide 1
  • JOURNAL: RESPONDS SHOULD BE BETWEEN 5-7 SENTENCES. What characteristics, personality traits, and achievements are desirable in a good teacher?
  • Slide 2
  • CHAPTER 13.1- CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST 13.3-MEASURING ACHIEVEMENT, ABILITIES, AND INTEREST PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
  • Slide 3
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST Psychological tests try to make it possible to find out a great deal about a person in a short period of time. These test are useful in predicting how well a person might do in a particular career, an individuals desires, interests, and attitudes, and reveal psychological problems. Issues with these tests, are they tend to forget that tests are merely tools for measuring and predicting human behavior.
  • Slide 4
  • TEST RELIABILITY Reliability- refers to a tests consistency, and its ability to yield the same results under a variety of similar circumstances; Three ways to determine reliability: 1.If a person retakes the test in a shorter period of time do they make a similar score. 2.Does it yield the same results when scored at different times by different people. 3.If randomly divided does the test items in half score the same as the other half.
  • Slide 5
  • TEST VALIDITY A test maybe reliable but not valid; Validity - refers to the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure. One of the chief methods for measuring validity is to find out how well a test predicts performance this is known as predictive validity.
  • Slide 6
  • STANDARDIZATION Refers to two things: 1.must be administered and scored the same way every time; test administrators must be trained to follow the same procedures and ask the questions the same way. 2.Establishing the norm or average score, made by a large group of people.
  • Slide 7
  • ESTABLISHING NORMS Percentile system- is ranking of test scores that indicates the ratio of scores lower and higher than a given score; the scores actually achieved are placed in order from highest to lowest. Percentiles are established on the basis of the scores achieved by the standardization groups; most intelligence, aptitude, and personality test will encounter provided norms.
  • Slide 8
  • APTITUDE TEST Aptitude tests attempts to discover a persons talents and to predict how well he or she will be able to learn a new skill. SAT and ACT are general aptitude test that are designed to predicts a students success in college.
  • Slide 9
  • JOURNAL: RESPONDS SHOULD BE BETWEEN 5-7 SENTENCES. What is your reaction to the following statement: Intelligence test dont measure ability; they measure developed ability.
  • Slide 10
  • ACHIEVEMENT TESTS These test are designed to predict how well a person will be able to learn a new skill, achievement tests, are designed to measure how much a person has to learn in a particular area. Content validity- is how well a student masters a set of knowledge.
  • Slide 11
  • INTEREST INVENTORIES Interest inventory- determines a persons preferences, attitudes, and interests. A persons responses give a them profession or occupation. The more a persons interest patterns, correspond to those of people in a particular occupation; the more likely that a person will enjoy that profession. The purpose of these measures are to help people find a career that is right for them.
  • Slide 12
  • INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLIGENCE TESTING
  • Slide 13
  • Intelligence is a set of cognitive abilities, the general capacity to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, and adapt to changes in the environment.
  • Slide 14
  • Definitions of intelligence are widely variable, even among psychologists who study it.
  • Slide 15
  • What comprises intelligence varies with culture; what is considered valuable in one culture as a skill or characteristic may be of little importance in another. This plays into test making and biases
  • Slide 16
  • INTELLIGENCE TESTS REQUIRE Standardization: Norms that indicate where in the distribution a score lies (below, at, or above the mean). Bell Curve Standardized testing procedures- same instructions, questions, time limits and trained proctors. Scoring must also be standardized. Reliability: consistency of measurement Assessed using test-retest procedure. Validity: assesses what the test actually measures Criterion-related: the correlation between a test score and some criterion.
  • Slide 17
  • THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Spearmans - Single general ability theory (1920s). At this time intelligence was thought to be innate and only a single factor. It was said to underlie all intellectual behavior, such as reasoning, problem solving, and being generally adept in any given area of cognition.
  • Slide 18
  • SPEARMAN CONT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqbXPfaN_VM &feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqbXPfaN_VM &feature=related What would Spearman say about Dustin Hoffmans character? Can his theory explain this? Answer: NO!
  • Slide 19
  • MULTIPLE COGNITIVE ABILITIES Thurstone (late 1930s) right around the time of Spearman, proposed that intelligence was a function of seven cognitive abilities verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning.
  • Slide 20
  • Cattel (1960s) argued against multiple intelligences but thought there were 2 types of intelligence :
  • Slide 21
  • Fluid : ability to gain new knowledge and solve problems; innate intelligence such as reasoning abilities, intelligence, memory, speed of info processing, skills independent of education. Declines w/ age. Crystallized : accumulated knowledge, acquired through experience and education. Increases w/ age
  • Slide 22
  • WHO IS GARDNER AND WHY DO WE CARE? His multiple intelligences reflects Thurstones notion of intelligence coming in different packages The importance of his research is that his relatively independent areas of intellectual competence help with career finding. Also, he is a huge theorist college students study when becoming teachers
  • Slide 23
  • GARDNER CONT MI theory encourages schools to cultivate those skills that are valued in the community & broader society MI theory shows teachers that nearly every discipline, topic, and concept can be approached in several ways MI theory encourages personalization of education
  • Slide 24
  • GARDNER ARGUES FOR 9 DISTINCT TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words (poet, translator) Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns (mathematician, scientist) Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber (composer, singer)
  • Slide 25
  • Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly (sculptor, architect, surveyor) Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully (athlete, surgeon, dancer) Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. (politician, salesperson, religious leader)
  • Slide 26
  • Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes (therapist, social worker) Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature (botanist, farmer, rancher) Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. (philosopher) **Other types of intelligences proposed to Gardner by other researchers include sexual, spiritual and digital intelligence
  • Slide 27
  • According to Gardner, All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts, and are capable of developing greater proficiency in all of them. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together.
  • Slide 28
  • Some critics argue that Gardner has moved well beyond what is normally called intelligence and crossed over into things classified as talents or skills (musical ability and bodily-kinesthetic ability)
  • Slide 29
  • STERNBERGS THEORY ON INTELLIGENCE The 3 aspects of intelligence that make up his triarchic theory focuses on are: analytical intelligence, practical intelligence, and creative intelligence. Individuals are typically more adept at one of these than the other two, according to Sternberg. Sternbergs theory emphasizes the thought process rather than the end product, the IQ score.
  • Slide 30
  • STERNBERG CONT Analytic intelligence: mostly stressed in schools. It helps individuals do things like analyze, compare, and evaluate. (i.e. studying published reports of various colleges to determine which will be the best choice. Or the studying