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JasenovacProceedings of the First International Conference and Exhibit on the Jasenovac Concentration CampsOctober 29-31, 1997 Kingsborough Community College of the City University of New York

DallasPublishing

Mt. Pleasant

JASENOVAC: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND EXHIBIT ON THE JASENOVAC CONCENTRATION CAMPS. Copyright [Kingsborough Community College History Dept.?], 2003. All rights reserved. For information, address Dallas Publishing Company, P. O. Box 1144, Mt. Pleasant, Texas 75456-1144. editor@DallasPublishing.com; www.DallasPublishing.com Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Jasenovac: First International Conference Jasenovac: proceedings of the first international conference and exhibit on the Jasenovac concentration camps/ ISBN 0-912011-64-5 Conference photo images and audio transcribed from First International Conference and Exhibition on the Jasenovac Concentration Camps video series. Copyright Memory Films, Joe Friendly, Chief Producer, 203 West 107th St., Apt. 8A, New York, NY 10025. Map of Jasenovac area from Mileti, Antun. "Koncentracioni Logor Jasenovac 1941-1945, Dokumenta" (Concentration Camp Jasenovac 1941-1945, Documents), Volume 3, Narodna Knjiga, Beograd, Spomen-podruje Jasenovac, first edition 1987. Map of Nazi division of Yugoslavia, 1941, from U.S. Department of State, Documents on German Foreign Policy. Series D (1937-1945), Vol. XII, Washington, DC: USGPO, 1962 Archival photos from Kozara: Photographic History. Belgrade, BIGZ, 1986. Jasenovac: Photographic History. Belgrade, BIGZ, 1986. Dragoje Luki. Bili Su Samo Deca (They Were Only Children). Banja Luka: Grafomark, 2000. Dr. Nikola Nikoli. Jasenovac: Camp of Death. ______ (1948) 1976. Publishers Cataloguing-in-Publication First International Conference on the Jasenovac Concentration Camps Jasenovac: First International Conference and Exhibit on the Jasenovac Concentration Camps / First International Conference on the Jasenovac Concentration Camps ; edited by Petar Makara and Wanda Schindley ; translations: Vladimir Bibi ; Petar Makara ; Vesna Najfeld ; Snezana Vitorovi. 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. LCCN 2003______ ISBN 0-912011-64-5 1. First International Conference on the Jasenovac Concentration Camps 2. World War, 1939-1945Personal narratives, Yugoslavian. 3. Jasenovac (Concentration Camp) 4. World War, 1939-1945Prisoners and prisons, Croatian. 5. CroatiaHistory19181945. I. Title D804.3.F47 940.5318F

Dedicated to the memory of the victims of the Balkan genocide 1941-1945

Table of ContentsAcknowledgements Editors Notes and Pronunciation Key Map: Nazi division of Yugoslavia Map: Jasenovac area Map: Jasenovac area Snapshots of a Holocaust: Quotations from Western Literature Compiled by Petar Makara Survivor Testimonies Conference Sessions Three and Six; Post-conference Interviews Ms. Mara Vejnovi Ms. Ljiljana Ivanievi Mr. Savo Petrovi Mr. George ivkovi Mr. Boo varz Mr. Milo Despot Mr. Sadik Danon Mr. edomil Huber Mr. Josip Erlih Ms. tefica Serdar Saboli Mr. Edo ajer Mr. Savo Delibasi Presentations and Proceedings Opening Session Chair, Dr. Bernard Klein Mr. Michael Zibrin Mr. Vladimir Jovanovi Dr. Milan Bulaji Conference Session One Dr. Bernard Klein Mr. Antun Mileti Mr. Vladimir erjavi Dr. Milan Bulaji Dr. Savo Bosnitch Audience Discussion

Lunch Sessions Two Dr. Michael Berenbaum Question and Answer Session Conference Session Four Session Four Chair, Dr. Zeljan Shuster Dr. Henry Huttenbach Mr. Dragoljub Ackovi Dr. Eta Najfeld Mr. John Ranz Conference Session Six Session Six Chair, Mr. Barry Lituchy Dr. Thomas Popovich Dr. Eli Rosenbaum Mr. Christopher Simpson Mr. Charles R. Allen Question and Answer Session Lunch Session Seven Mr. Aleksandar Moi Question and Answer Session Conference Session Eight Chair, Dr. Bernard Klein Mr. William Dorich Dr. Vladimir Umelji Audience Discussion Session Press conference at the United Nations Epilogue Appendix Archival Photographs Jasenovac: Then and Now, by Bill Dorich (Prepared for and donated to the First International Conference) Index

Acknowledgements Kingsborough Community College, Department of History Dr. Bernard Klein, Conference Chair Exhibit Dr. Milan Bulaji Memory Films conference videographers Mr. Vladimir Bibi, Mr. Joe Friendly (Video tapes Volume 1 through 12 available from Joe Friendly, 203 West 107th St., Apt. 8A, New York, NY 10025) [Yugoslav TV? conference videographers: Ms. ] Conference Translators Dr. Vesna Najfeld, Mr. Petar Makara Post-conference Interviews Ms. Nadia Tesich, Translator: Mr. Vladimir Bibi Editors Mr. Petar Makara Dr. Wanda Schindley Translations: Dr. Vesna Najfeld Mr. Petar Makara Ms. Snezana Vitorovi Transcription draft of presentations: Jasenovac Research Institute Transcription draft of survivor testimonies: Ms. Jovanka Malkovich Final transcriptions: Mr. Tika Jankovi Mr. Petar Makara Mr. Igor Najfeld Dr. Wanda Schindley Ms. Snezana Vitorovi

Notes on the compilation and presentation of conference proceedings

Pronunciation key

U.S. Department of State, Documents on German Foreign Policy. Series D (1937-1945), Vol. XII, Washington, DC: USGPO, 1962

From Mileti, Antun. "Koncentracioni Logor Jasenovac 1941-1945, Dokumenta" (Concentration Camp Jasenovac 1941-1945, Documents), Volume 3, Narodna Knjiga, Beograd, Spomen-podruje Jasenovac, first edition 1987.

The Sava River is the dividing line between what is now Croatia (top) and Bosnia (bottom). Five concentration camps under Jasenovac reached from Krapalj to Stara Gradiska, an area of 131 square miles. Others of the 24 concentration camps in Croatia were at times also under the command of Jasenovac. (Croatian State Commission)

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Snapshots of a HolocaustThrough quotations from Western literature Compiled by Petar Makara ETHNIC SLAUGHTER The greatest ethnic slaughter took place as Yugoslavia was carved up after the German invasion in April 1941. The creation of a separate Croatia . . . controlled by the fascist, Catholic, extremist Ustasha movement was the catalyst for the tragedy... Now, historic Croatia was expanded to include Bosnia-Herzegovina and other territories, and the Ustasha were left . . . to govern a population of nearly 7 million people, of whom about half were Croats, just over 2 million were Serbs, about 750,000 were Muslims, and small numbers were Protestants and Jews. . . . The Minister of Education, Mile Budak, made clear the Ustasha aims: 'Our new Croatia will get rid of all Serbs in our midst in order to become one hundred percent Catholic within ten years. Professor Clive Ponting, Armageddon, Random House, Inc., New York, 1995, pp. 231-232. UNSURPASSED SAVAGERY In Bosnia . . . the Croatian fascists began a massacre of Serbs which, in the whole annals of World War II, was surpassed for savagery only by the mass extermination of Polish Jews. Encyclopedia Britannica 1971 ed., Vol. 23, p. 922 Entry: Yugoslavia, WWII (The above quotation was repeated in all versions of Encyclopedia Britannica from 1971 until 1987. You can find it for example in Encyclopedia Britannica Edition 1971, Volume 23, page 922 or in Encyclopedia Britannica, Edition 1987, Volume 29, page 1054. (The entry is entitled, Yugoslavia, W.W.II) In recent subsequent editions of Britannica, Yugoslavia is deleted altogether.)

METHODS OF MURDERING 'FOREIGN ELEMENTS' Croatia [under Fascist control called itself the 'Independent State of Croatia' or 'Nazavisna Drzava Hrvatska,' hence the initials NDH] . . . Established during W.W.II. . . [it] was in existence from April 1941 to May 1945. Its area . . . consisted of what are today the Federative Republic of Croatia and the Federative Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina... Its capital was Zagreb. It had a population of 6.3 million, of whom 3.3 million were Catholic Croats, 1.9 million Serbs, 700,000 Muslims... 40,000 Jews, 30,000 Gypsies... . . . Shortly after taking control, the Ustasha, with the support of many Croats, embarked upon what it called 'The Purge of Croatia from Foreign Elements,' which had as its main purpose the elimination of the Serb minority. In a brutal terror campaign, more than half a million Serbs were killed, a quarter of a million expelled, and 200,000 forced to convert to Catholicism. The Ustasha regime in Croatia, and particularly this drive in the summer of 1941 to exterminate and dispossess the Serbs, was one of the most horrendous episodes of World War II. The murder methods applied by the Ustasha were extraordinarily primitive and sadistic: thousands were hurled from mountain tops, other were beaten to death or their throats cut, entire villages were burned down, women raped, people sent to death marches in the middle of winter, and still others starved to death. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Vol. 1, p. 323, Entry: Croatia. EXTERMINATION OF SERBS AND JEWS In April 1941 separatist Croats of the fascist terrorist organization 'Ustasha' set up in Zagreb an Independent Croat regime with Dr. Ante Pavelic as fuehrer, or "Poglavnik," and with Marshal Slavko Kvaternik as minister of war. . . . The new state, organized on strictly fascist and authoritarian lines, excelled quickly by the special ruthlessness and cruelty with which it persecuted, and partially exterminated the large Serb minority and the small Jewish population..." Encyclopedia Britannica, 1943: Book of the year, page 215, Entry: 'Croatia'

SHOCKED THE GERMANS Slavko Kvaternik explained [in a radio program on April 10, 1941, the day the 'Independent State of Croatia' was formed] how a pure Croatia should be builtby forcing one third of the Serbs to leave Croatia, one third to convert to Catholicism, and one third to be exterminated. Soon Ustasha bands initiated a bloody orgy of mass murder of Serbs unfortunate enough not to have converted or left Croatia on