itn instructorppt chapter8

Post on 01-Mar-2016

12 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Introduction to Networks chapter 8

TRANSCRIPT

  • Chapter 8:IP Addressing

    Introduction to Networks

    2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1

  • Chapter 88 0 I t d ti8.0 Introduction8.1 IPv4 Network Addresses8.2 IPv6 Network Addresses8 3 Connectivity Verification8.3 Connectivity Verification8.4 Summary

    Presentation_ID 2 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IP AddressingChapter 8: ObjectivesI thi h t ill b bl tIn this chapter, you will be able to:

    Describe the structure of an IPv4 address. Describe the purpose of the subnet mask. Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast,

    broadcast and multicast IPv4 addresses.

    Explain the need for IPv6 addressing. Describe the representation of an IPv6 address Describe the representation of an IPv6 address. Describe types of IPv6 network addresses. Configure global unicast addresses.

    Presentation_ID 3 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IP AddressingIntroductionI thi h t ill b bl t ( ti d)In this chapter, you will be able to (continued):

    Describe multicast addresses. Describe the role of ICMP in an IP network (include IPv4 and

    IPv6)IPv6)

    Use ping and traceroute utilities to test network connectivity

    Presentation_ID 4 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • 8.1IPv4 Network Addresses

    Presentation_ID 5 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Address StructureBinary Notation

    Bi t ti Binary notation refers to the fact that computersthat computers communicate in 1s and 0s1s and 0s

    Converting binary to decimalto decimal requires an understanding ofunderstanding of the mathematical basis of abasis of a numbering system

    Presentation_ID 6 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    ypositional notation

  • IPv4 Address StructureBinary Number System

    Presentation_ID 7 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Address StructureConverting a Binary Address to DecimalP tiPractice

    Presentation_ID 8 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Address StructureConverting from Decimal to Binary

    Presentation_ID 9 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Address StructureConverting from Decimal to Binary Conversions

    Presentation_ID 10 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskIPv4 Subnet MaskNetwork Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address

    To define the network and host portions of an address, a devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet p pmask

    The subnet mask does not actually contain the network h t ti f IP 4 dd it j t h t

    Presentation_ID 11 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    or host portion of an IPv4 address, it just says where to look for these portions in a given IPv4 address

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskIPv4 Subnet MaskNetwork Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address

    Valid Subnet Masks

    Presentation_ID 12 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskExamining the Prefix Length

    Presentation_ID 13 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskIPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Address

    Presentation_ID 14 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskFirst Host and Last Host Addresses

    Presentation_ID 15 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Subnet MaskBitwise AND Operation

    1 AND 1 = 1 1 AND 0 = 0 0 AND 1 = 0 0 AND 0 = 0

    Presentation_ID 16 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    1 AND 1 = 1 1 AND 0 = 0 0 AND 1 = 0 0 AND 0 = 0

  • IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and MulticastAssigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host

    LAN Interface Properties Configuring a Static IPv4 Address

    Presentation_ID 17 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast, ,Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host

    VerificationVerification

    DHCP preferred method of leasing IPv4 addresses to hosts on largeDHCP - preferred method of leasing IPv4 addresses to hosts on large networks, reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors

    Presentation_ID 18 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast, ,Unicast Transmission

    In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways:

    1. Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual hosthost to an individual host.

    Presentation_ID 19 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and MulticastBroadcast Transmission2 B d t th f di k t f h t2. Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host

    to all hosts in the network

    Routers do not Directed broadcastRouters do not forward a

    limited

    Directed broadcast Destination

    172.16.4.255 broadcast! Hosts within the

    172.16.4.0/24 net orknetwork

    Presentation_ID 20 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and MulticastMulticast Transmission Multicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to

    a selected group of hosts, possibly in different networks

    Reduces traffic

    Reserved for addressing multicast groups 224 0 0 0 to Reserved for addressing multicast groups - 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.

    Link local - 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 (Example: routing information exchanged by routing protocols)

    Globally scoped addresses - 224.0.1.0 to 238.255.255.255 (Example: 224.0.1.1 has been reserved for Network Time ( pProtocol)

    Presentation_ID 21 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • Types of IPv4 AddressPublic and Private IPv4 AddressesP i t dd bl kPrivate address blocks are: Hosts that do not require access to the Internet can use q

    private addresses

    10 0 0 0 to 10 255 255 255 (10 0 0 0/8)10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8) 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/12) 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/16)Shared address space addresses:Shared address space addresses: Not globally routable Intended only for use in service provider networks

    Add bl k i 100 64 0 0/10

    Presentation_ID 22 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    Address block is 100.64.0.0/10

  • Types of IPv4 AddressSpecial Use IPv4 Addresses

    N t k d B d t dd ithi h t k Network and Broadcast addresses - within each network the first and last addresses cannot be assigned to hosts

    Loopback address - 127.0.0.1 a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to themselves (addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 are reserved)

    Link-Local address - 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 (169.254.0.0/16) addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host

    TEST-NET addresses - 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192 0 2 0/24) set aside for teaching and learning purposes(192.0.2.0/24) set aside for teaching and learning purposes, used in documentation and network examples

    E perimental addresses 240 0 0 0 to 255 255 255 254

    Presentation_ID 23 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    Experimental addresses - 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254 are listed as reserved

  • Types of IPv4 AddressLegacy Classful Addressing

    Presentation_ID 24 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • Types of IPv4 AddressLegacy Classful Addressing

    Classless Addressing Formal name is Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR,Formal name is Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR,

    pronounced cider Created a new set of standards that allowed service

    providers to allocate IPv4 addresses on any address bit boundary (prefix length) instead of only by a class A, B, or C addressC address

    Presentation_ID 25 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • Types of IPv4 AddressAssignment of IP Addresses

    Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)The major registries are:

    Presentation_ID 26 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • Types of IPv4 AddressAssignment of IP Addresses

    ISPs are large national or international ISPs that are directly connected to

    Tier 2 ISPs generally

    the Internet backbone.

    Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers.

    Tier 3 ISPs purchase their Internet service

    Tier 3 ISPs often bundle Internet connectivity as a part of network and computer service

    Presentation_ID 27 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

    from Tier 2 ISPs.network and computer service contracts for their customers.

  • 8.2IPv6 Network Addresses

    Presentation_ID 28 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

  • IPv4 IssuesThe Need for IPv6

    IPv6 is designed to be the successor to IPv4 Depletion of IPv4 address space has been the motivating

    factor for moving to IPv6

    Projections show that all five RIRs will run out of IPv4 addresses between 2015 and 2020addresses between 2015 and 2020

    With an increasing Internet population, a limited IPv4 address space issues with NAT and an Internet of things the timespace, issues with NAT and an Intern