introduction to film cinematography. cinematography: "writing in movement everything that has to do...
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Introduction to Film Cinematography Slide 2 Cinematography: "writing in movement Everything that has to do with cameras and lenses, with film/film stock (and its digital equivalents), exposure and processing of film/digital images. Slide 3 Cinematography Mise-en-scene What is filmed Set Design Color Lighting Actors Performances Diegetic Sound Cinematography How it is filmed Framing Aspect Ratio Film Stock Camera Elements Camera Angle Camera Movement Camera Position Camera Lens Exposure Slide 4 Cinematography Other Issues Digital Cinematography Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has brought changes in Cinematography, which was traditionally based on chemical/photographic images and effects. Visual Special Effects Often done in post-production (esp. digital effects). Lighting Since it is part of what is filmed, it is often seen as part of a films mise-en-scene. However, the cinematographer has significant input into lighting decisions. Framing As with lighting, framing involves the director and cinematographer. Slide 5 Framing Angle, level, and distance of framing each shot Offscreen space versus onsceen space Slide 6 Framing Extreme Wide ShotVery Wide Shot Slide 7 Framing Wide ShotMid Shot Slide 8 Framing Medium Close UpClose Up Slide 9 Framing Extreme Close UpCut-In Slide 10 Camera Angle The angle between the camera and the subject. Slide 11 Straight-on (Eye-level) angle Slide 12 High-angle Slide 13 Low-angle Slide 14 Slide 15 Birds Eye Slide 16 Point of View Slide 17 The Lady in the Lake 1947 Detective film Shot entirely from main character's point of view Slide 18 Slanted or Canted angle (Dutch tilt) Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Height of Camera Tokyo Story (1953) Yasujiro Ozu Slide 22 Aspect Ratio Ratio of screen width to height Classical Hollywood ratio (1.33:1) Widescreen ratios (1.85:1, 2.35:1) Video conversion Pan-and-scan Letterbox Slide 23 Aspect Ratio Rules of the Game, Jean Renoir, 1939 1.33:1 (4 to 3) Aliens, James Cameron, 1986 1.85:1 Rebel Without A Cause, Nicholas Ray, 1955 2.35:1 (Cinemascope) Slide 24 Aspect Ratio Converting from film to TV. 2.2 to 1Pan & Scan; 1.33 to 1 Slide 25 Film Stock Selection enables cinematographer to control: Color reproduction Light sensitivity Contrast levels Sharpness Grain and resolution Slide 26 Singin in the Rain Technicolor Film Stock Slide 27 Film Stock Other Types Kodachrome Kinemacolor Cinecolor 35mm 70mm IMAX Film stock deteriorates over time Slide 28 Camera Lens Focal Length The distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus. This length determines perspective relations and depth cues on the flat screen surface. Slide 29 Normal lens: 35-50mm Slide 30 Camera Lens Wide Angle Short focal length (35 mm or less) which produces a wider angle of view Effect: distorting straight lines, exaggerating depth Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Camera Lens Telephoto Lens Lens with a long focal length (75mm or more). Effect: collapse depth cues by enlarging distant planes and making them seem close to the foreground planes. Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Camera Lens Zoom lens Lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot. Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image and flattens the space Shift to wide-angle increases depth cues and demagnifies the background. Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Depth of Field The range of distance within which objects can be photographed and remain in sharp focus. Short focal length has greater depth of field. Long focal length reduces depth of field. Slide 45 Slide 46 Slide 47 Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 Slide 51 Camera Movement Pan Rotates horizontally, side to side Tilt Vertical pivot, up and down Dolly, tracking, or traveling shots Crane (and boom or jib) shots Hand-held and steadicam shots Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 Slide 58 Slide 59 Camera Movement Dolly, Tracking, Traveling shots: all basically the same. Tracking shot came from the tracks that dollies moved on. Traveling shot is generally reserved for movements taken from a vehicle. Slide 60 Boom/jib shots Camera mounted on counterweighted boom; some booms can also telescope in or out. Can use for combinations of pans & tilts, horizontal, vertical or diagonal moves. Crane shots Shots look the same as boom shot, but often motorized or with hydraulics for movement. Camera Movement Slide 61 Hand-held shots Can pan or tilt or track Hand-held movement is obviously unsteady--which is how we know its a hand-held shot. Steadicam A device which dampens unsteadiness, producing a relatively smooth movement, even when walking or running. Steadicam first used in Rocky (1976) Camera Movement Slide 62 Cinematography Putting it all together with story boarding. Example: The Lord of the Rings