introduction to cellular networks

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  • 1. NDI Communications - Engineering & Training Introduction to Cellular NetworksIntroduction to Cellular Networks Part 1Part 1 Traditional NetworksTraditional Networks

2. Page 2 NDI Communications Lesson Content Introduction The network evolution Early (2.0-2.5G) cellular networks Broadband (3.0-3.75) Cellular Networks Commercial and economical issues 3. Page 3 Wireless and Cellular Networks - History In 1905, Guglielmo Marconi invented the first Radio application for Naval requirements In 1912, with the drowning of the Titanic, Radio communications became essential In 1930, the First mobile transmitter was developed. First Simplex communications. 4. Page 4 Wireless and Cellular Networks - History In 1935, FM Frequency Modulation developed. Later used in WW2 by the US In 1942, a Patent for Frequency Hoping was registered by actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil. Later developed to CDMA. They called it Secret Communication System During the years 1946-1968, wireless communications developed for government services Police, Fire departments etc 5. Page 5 Wireless and Cellular Networks - History 1979 in Tokyo, Japan. Later in the early 80s in the US and Europe the first real mobile hone, including handoff. In the early-mid 80s, various technologies came, like WLL, LMDS, and Wireless LAN. In the mid-late 90s, development of 2.0G+ cellular networks, along with the emerging of wireless data networks. Since the early 2000s, fast cellular and wireless services, along with advanced, IP- Based services 6. Page 6 What do we have today ? Cellular technologies Started 1.0G, analog communications Today (2009), 3.5G moving to 4.0G (LTE and LTE-Advanced) technology Wireless technologies: Wireless LAN (WiFi), for urban areas, mostly private networks, moving to mobility Fixed WiMAX for high bandwidth, SP networks 7. Page 7 Where is it in the Network? First Mile Access DSLAM CMTV Wireless Cellular FO Technologies Service Networks Internet Voice VideoVideo AOL Earthlink Yahoo PSTN Skype Vonage Direct TV Content Aggregator Core/Switching Network 8. Page 8 Some Wireless Principles Radio Communications In wireless / mobile communications, the principle is to get the maximum capacity from the air, or what called the air interface. For this purpose, we use the following techniques: Frequency bands that we are allowed to use (Government Licenses) Modulation that carry the information over the radio waves Multiplexing that shared the air interface between different users. 9. Page 9 What is it All About? How much bps can we get from every Hz ??? (The Shannons Theorem) C = W * log2 (1 + S/N) Channel Capacity [Bits/sec] Signal Bandwidth [Hz] Signal to Noise Ratio [Number] Claude E. Shannon 10. Page 10 How it works The beginning Traditional mobile service was structured in a fashion similar to television broadcasting One very powerful transmitter located at the highest spot in an area would broadcast in a radius of up to 50Km. 11. Page 11 And Then . With one antenna limited cover and number of users Therefore split into many low power transmitters 12. Page 12 The Solution - Cells Frequency reuse Different color different frequency In the example N (Reuse factor) =7 13. Page 13 Practical Frequency reuse Cell Splitting We start with Macro-Cells Rural areas Then Micro-Cells More crowded rural areas Then Pico-Cells Urban area C D E G F A Macro cells B C D E G F AMicro cells B C D E G F B A Pico cells 14. Page 14 Moving Between Cells Mobile phones moves between cells The handset should not be disconnected Base Station F2 Base Station F1 15. Page 15 The Solution - The Handover Process RSSI RSSI RSSI FRQ A FRQ CFRQ B Handover Happens Here RSSI - Received Signal Strength Indicator Handover Happens Here 16. Page 16 Access Methods The Major Air-Interface Methods are: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Frequency Time Code FDMA Frequency Tim e Code TDMA Frequency Time Code CDMA 17. Page 17 The Cellular Network Structure Cell phones The UserThe UserThe UserThe User The Radio Network The AccessThe AccessThe AccessThe Access NetworkNetworkNetworkNetwork Circuit Switching Packet Switching The Core Network The SwitchingThe SwitchingThe SwitchingThe Switching NetworkNetworkNetworkNetwork Mobile Internet Intelligent Network Advanced Services Intelligent Network The ServicesThe ServicesThe ServicesThe Services FO Cables FO Cables MW Air Interface 18. Page 18 NDI Communications Lesson Content Introduction The network evolution Early (2.0-2.5G) cellular networks Broadband (3.0-3.75) Cellular Networks Commercial and economical issues NDI Communications 19. Page 19 Early Technologies 1G to Early 3G Evolution NMT GSM TACS cdmaOne (ANSI-95) 1990 1995 2000 2005 GRPS (2,5G) and EDGE (2.75G) [Upto 384Kbps] cdmaOne (ANSI-95-B) [64-115] AMPS D-AMPS (TDMA) ANSI-136 IS-136 (ANSI-136-A/B) [Upto 64Kbps] 1G 2G 2.5G 3GPP WCDMA R.99 [2Mbps] Cdma2000 (1.25/3.75MHz) [307-2048Kbps] Early 3.0G TDMA-EDGE (IS-136HS) [Upto 384Kbps] 20. Page 20 Wireless and Mobile 3G Technologies Evolution 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 IEEE 802.16-2004/ ETSI HiperMAN OFDM 3GPP HSDPA R5 3GPP HSUPA R6 3GPP MIMO/ HSPA+ R7 SAE/LTE R8 3GPP2 1xEVDV RevA 3GPP2 1xEVDO RevB IEEE 802.16e-2005/ ETSI HiperMAN SISO/OFDMA IEEE 802.16e-2005/ETSI HiperMAN MIMO/Beamforming/OFDMA 3G to 4G WiMAX 3GPP WCDMA R.99 3GPP2 1xEVDO Rev0 21. Page 21 Cellular Standards (1.0-3.0G) - Summary CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (IS-856)3GPP2 UMTS (UTRAN), WCDMA-FDD, WCDMA-TDD, UTRA- TDD LCR (TD-SCDMA) 3GPP3G (IMT-2000) WiDENOther CDMA2000 1xRTT (IS-2000)Cdma/3GPP2 HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE/EGPRSGSM/3GPP2G transitional (2.5G, 2.75G) CDPD, iDEN, PDC, PHSOther CdmaOne (IS-95)Cdma/3GPP2 GSM, CSDGSM/3GPP2G NMT, Hicap, Mobitex, DataTACOther AMPS, TACS, ETACSAMPS family1G TechnologiesFamily 22. Page 22 Cellular Standards (3.0G+) - Summary IEEE 802.16m (WiMAX)Other LTE AdvancedCdma/3GPP2 LTE AdvancedGSM/3GPP4G (IMT- Advanced) Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) Flash-OFDM, IEEE 802.20 Other EV-DO Rev. A, EV-DO Rev. BCdma/3GPP2 HSDPA, HSUPA, HSPA+, LTE (E-UTRAN)GSM/3GPP3G transitional (3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G) TechnologiesFamily 23. Page 23 Wireless and Mobile Communications Cellular Networks 2010200320011985 1992-2000 1.0G Analog Systems Speech Only Voice No Data 2.0G TDMA/GSM/C DMA Speech SMS WAP Voice 30-40Kbps Data 2.5G GPRS/1XRTT Speech and packet based Data Services Voice 100-200Kbps Data 3.0G-3.5G UMTS/CDMA 2000 HSDPA/HSUPA 1xEVDO/DV Video Streaming, Video conference, High speed Packet Data Voice 1-5Mbps Data 4.0G LTE Advanced 100s Mbps data transfer Voice 5-100Mbps Data Voice Over IP 24. Page 24 NDI Communications Lesson Content Introduction The network evolution Early (2.0-2.5G) cellular networks Broadband (3.0-3.75) Cellular Networks Commercial and economical issues NDI Communications 25. Page 25 The 2.0G Networks The critical problem in 1.0G was capacity. The main requirement was to increase it These requirements brought several new technologies: The general characteristics of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access Promise to significantly increase the efficiency of cellular telephone systems to allow a greater number of simultaneous conversations. 26. Page 26 The GSM Network GSM, or Global System for Mobile Communications, is a second generation technology. The focus in GSM was to support roaming throughout Europe. An ETSI standard. In use all around the world. GSM is not only an air interface standard, but includes the entire network. Of the numerous individual standards that define an entire GSM network, only a small portion deal directly with the air interface. That air interface was standardized to be TDMA. 27. Page 27 The GSM Network BSC BTS BTS Mobile Station Access Network: Base Station Subsystem HLR VLR EIR AuC MSC PSTN Core Network: GSM CS network SS7 GSM Interfaces Parallel North American Technology cdma1 28. Page 28 GSM Air Interface FDMA: 124 channels of 200KHz Total 25MHz Uplink 25MHz Downlink TDMA: 8*TS for channel 29. Page 29 GPRS and EDGE for Early Data Applications The two key benefits of GPRS were: Better use of radio and network resources Completely transparent IP support GPRS optimises the use of network and radio resources. It uses radio resources only when there is data to be sent or received. GPRS have added two major components, that are still used in cellular data networks: GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) {DHCP and FW} for filtering and firewall, Charge collections and PDN access SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) {Switch} for Authentication, Authorisation, Encryption, Compression, Mobility management, Charge collection, BSS interface EDGE was a Pre-3.0G network, that improved data-rate by better modulation techniques 30. Page 30 The Cellular Network Structure 2.0G-2.5G BSC PCU Packet Network Packet Network SGSN IP netIP net GGSN Data Network Data Network TRAU MSC PSTNPSTN Circuit Switching Packet Switching VLR BTS Mobile Device BTS HLR 31. Page 31 NDI Communications Lesson Content Introduction The network evolution Early (2.0-2.5G) cellular networks Broadband (3.0-3.75) Cellular Networks Commercial and economical issues NDI Communications 32. Page 32 3.0G - Introduction Started as IMT2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000): Used worldwide Used for all mobile applications Support both packet-switched (PS) and circuit-switched (CS) data transmission Offer high data rates up to 2 Mbps (depending on mobility/velocity) Offer high spectrum efficiency 33. Page 33 The IMT-2000 Vision IMT-SC* Single Carrier (UWC-136): EDGE GSM evolution (TDMA); 200 KHz channels; sometimes called 2.75G IMT-MC* Multi Carrier CDMA: CDMA2000 Evolution of IS-95 CDMA, i.e. cdmaOne Now 3GPP2 IMT-DS* Dire

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