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Prepared by :Prashu PrakashBtech(EEE) 4th yearA2324612039Summer Project Topic:Study of a Thermal Power Plant

Brief Profile of the companyUnder IPGCL i.e. Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited,3 Power Stations are in operation.They are as follows :1)I.P STATION2)RAJGHAT POWER HOUSE3)GAS TURBINE POWER STATION (GTPS)

Under PPCL i.e. Pragati Power Cooperation Limited, one Power Station is in operation and it is:PRAGATI POWER STATION

STATIONSI.P STATIONRAJGHAT POWER STATIONGTPSPRAGATI POWER STATIONStation Capacity (MW)247.5135282330Units3*62.5 (GT) + 60 (ST)2*67.5 (GT)6*30 (GT) + 3*34 (WHRU)2*104 (GT) + 1*122 (WHRU)Year of Commissioning1967-711989-901986 & 19962002-2003Coal Field/GasNCL,BINANCL,BINAGAIL HBJ PipelineGAIL HBJ PipelineWater SourcesRiver YamunaRiver YamunaRiver YamunaTreated water from Sen Nursing Home & Delhi Gate Sewage Treatment PlantsBeneficiary AreasVIP-South & Central DelhiCentral & North DelhiNDMC-VIP,DMRCNDMC,South Delhi

MISSION OF THE COMPANYTo make Delhi-Power SurplusTo maximize generation from available capacityTo plan and implement new generation capacity in DelhiTo set ever so high standards of environment ProtectionTo develop competent human resources for managing the company with good standards

IntroductionWorks on Rankine CycleSteam produced in boiler (usually by burning coal) is expanded in the prime mover (ie; steam turbine)Condensed steam is fed back to boiler againThe steam turbine drives the alternator produces electricitySteam power plants contribute about 65% of total electrical energy generated in India

Rankine Cycle

Layout of THERMAL Power PlantThe schematic arrangement of a modern steam power station can be divided into the following stages:Coal and ash handling plantSteam generating plantSteam turbineAlternatorFeed waterCooling arrangement

Coal and Ash handling plantCoal is transported to power station by rail or road and stored in coal storage plant and then pulverisedPulverised coal is fed to fed to the boiler by belt conveyersCoal gets burned in the boiler and ash produced is removed to the ash handling plant and then delivered to ash storage plant for disposalA 100MW station operating at 50% LF may burn about 20000tons of coal per month and produce 3000 tons of ash

Coal handling plant

ASH HANDLING PLANT

The Ash from the boiler is collected in two forms:Bottom Ash(Slurry):Its a waste which is dumped into a Ash PondFly ash: Fly ash is separated from Flue Gases in ESP(Electro static Precipitator).

Fly Ash & Flue GasesEconomizer

ESP

Bottom ash(wet ash)Ash Pond Boiler

Cylo

ChimneyFly ashFlue GasesCement Factory

Steam generating plantThe steam generating plant consists of a boiler for the production of steam and other auxiliary equipment for the utilization of flue gases1) Boiler: The heat of combustion in the boiler is utilized to convert water into steam at high temperature and pressure

Boiler

2) Superheater: The steam produced in boiler is wet and is passed through a superheater where it is dried and superheated. Increases efficiency3) Economiser: Its essentially a feed water heater & derives heat from the flue gases

Steam generating plant4) Air Preheater: Increases the temperature of the air supplied for coal burning by deriving heat from flue gases. Air is drawn from the atmosphere by a forced drought fan and is passed through air preheater before supplying to the boiler furnace.

Steam TurbineDry and superheated steam from superheater is fed to the steam turbine.The heat energy of steam when passing over the blades of turbine is converted into mechanical energy.After giving energy to the turbine, the steam is exhausted to the condenser which condenses the exhausted steam by means of cold water circulation

Turbine Full View

AlternatorSteam turbine is coupled to an alternator which converts the mechanical energy to electrical energy

The electrical output of the alternator is delivered to the bus bars through transformer, circuit breakers and isolators.

Feed WaterThe condensate from the condenser is used as feed water to the boiler.The water that may be lost in the cycle is made up from the external sourceThe feed water on its way to boiler gets heated up by water heaters and economiser.This helps to improve the overall efficiency of the plant

Raw Water

Purified DM water

For cooling purpose

Steam

Condenser

Water in a Power Plant is used forProduction of Steam- for rotating turbine.Cooling Purpose- For cooling of various equipment

3% of water is wasted during this process. Appx 4 cubic mt water is lost /day/MW

Cooling ArrangementCondenser condenses the steam exhausted from the turbineWater is drawn from natural sources like river, lake, canalsCirculating water takes up the heat and itself gets heated upThis hot water can be discharged away or used again by using a cooling tower

Merits & DemeritsMerits:Requires less space than hydro power plantInitial cost is lessCheaper fuels like coals and waterCost of generation is less

Demerits:Temp. of combustion chamber is too high, which results in shorter life time.Thermal plant has low efficiencyRunning cost is higherIt pollutes the atmosphere

REFERENCESLinks referred :http://www.hrsgdesign.com/design0.htmhttp://ipgcl-ppcl.gov.in/http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/electric_power/illustrated_glossary/substation.html#Equipment Books:Principles of Power System- V.K. MehtaA Course in Power Systems- J.B. Gupta