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<ul><li><p>Innovative Uses of ICT in Educational Research</p><p>Rosamund SutherlandGraduate School of Education</p><p>University of Bristolros.sutherland@bris.ac.uk</p></li><li><p>The Project TeamDavid Badlan Dave Baker Rebecca Ball Dick Bateman Bryan Berry Rob Beswetherwick Raj Bhakerd Andrew Bigg Chas Blacker Adrian Blight Kate Bouverie-Brine Jan Bovill Stephanie Bower Helena Brazier Linda BridgemanChris Carter Charmaine Clarke Andrew Cleaver Ruth Cole Chris Davies Ian Davies Liz Dunbar Rachel Edwards Thamir Elzubaidi Alan George Louise Hamilton Phil Hamilton Gary Handley Andrew Harman Catherine Harvey Jo Heppinstall Natalie Heysham Ben Houghton Judi Johnston Hubbold Nick Jones Rod Jones Pam Kelly John Lang Liz Lang Elisabeth Lazarus Nicky </p><p>McAllister Sam Mills Heidi Moulder Suzanne Nash Ros OConnor Pat PeelSven Rees Catherine Roberston Andrew Rome Muriel Saffon Emma Scott-Cook Joe Sharp Ian Shedden Richard Shotton Baldev Singh Paul Stephens-Wood Daniel Such Jude Swailes Paul Taylor Ian Thomson Maria ThompsonToby Tyas Nigel Varley Geof Warnock Marnie Weeden Aled Williams Paul </p><p>Wilson Rachel Yates Rachel Zewde Sally Barnes Richard Brawn Nick BreezeKeri Facer Fern Faux Marina Gall Steve Godwin Peter John Linda LaVelleSasha Matthewman Angela McFarlane John Morgan Jayne Prior Susan </p><p>Robertson Tim Shortis Rosamund Sutherland Alison Taylor Celia Tidmarsh Pat Triggs Peter John Angela McFarlane Naomi Kent Vicky Armstrong Mary </p><p>Oconnell</p><p>Graduate School of Education, University of Bristolin partnership with</p><p>Colstons Primary School, Cotham High School, Easton CE VA Primary School, </p><p>St Michaels CE VC Primary School, Fairfield High School, Teyfant Community School</p><p>Filton High School, Sir Bernard Lovell SchoolJohn Cabot City Technology College,</p><p>Bristol LEA, South Glos. LEACity of Bristol College</p></li><li><p>QuickTime and aTIFF (LZW) decompressor</p><p>are needed to see this picture.</p></li><li><p>A socio-cultural perspective on learning</p><p>The environments in which humans live are thick with invented artefacts that are in constant use for structuring activity, for saving mental work, or for avoiding errors or they are adapted creatively almost without notice. These ubiquitous mediating structures that both organise and constrain activity include not only designed objects such as tools, control instruments, and symbolic representations like graphs, diagrams, text, plans and pictures, but people in social relations, as well as features and landmarks in the physical environment Pea, 1993 p 48</p></li><li><p>A socio-cultural perspective on learning</p><p>A fundamental assumption in a socio-cultural understanding of human learning is precisely this: learning is always learning to do something with cultural tools (be they intellectual and/or theoretical). This has the important implication that when understanding learning we have to consider the unit that we are studying is people in action using tools of some kind. (Saljo 1999, p 147)</p></li><li><p>Learning</p><p> Learning involves learning to use new tools Students actively construct knowledge All learning is influenced by previous learning In terms of school learning there can be a </p><p>tension between incidental and intentional learning. </p><p> Teachers as mote knowledgeable others are key</p></li><li><p>Learning The socio-cultural perspective which framed the project foregrounds the idea that all learning is mediated by tools. Tools can be:</p><p> digital (e.g. word-processor, dynamic geometry software, music composition software, e-mail, interactive whiteboard) </p><p> non-digital (e.g.book, paper and pencil, ruler, dictionary).</p></li><li><p>Symbols and material objects</p></li><li><p>ICT</p></li><li><p>Students actively make sense</p></li><li><p>Students actively make sense</p><p>It has four sides</p><p>they are like train tracks </p><p>they are parallel </p><p>its the colour turquoise</p><p>it can be a diamond</p></li><li><p>Inventing tools in school mathematics</p><p>Trial and refinement</p></li><li><p>All learning is influenced by previous learning at school</p><p>Int: Does L have to be a larger number than A?</p><p>Eloise: Yes because A starts off as 1 or something.</p><p>Int: What made you think that [L has to be a larger number than A?]</p><p>Eloise: Because when we were little we used to do a code like that...in junior school...A would equal 1, B equals 2, C equals 3.....there were possibilities of A being 5 and B being 10 and that lot.....but it would come up too high a number to do it.........it was always in some order...</p></li><li><p>and at home.Int: Do either of you use Excel at home (Alan shakes </p><p>head)?Ray: Sometimes. My Dad uses it for his paper workInt: And when you use it what do you use it for?Ray: Umm, he uses it, cos when hes got paper </p><p>calculations and some are hard like for him, he puts it in Excel and then he puts, he circles it and then presses the equal button and it tells him what the sums are.</p><p>Int: What do you use it for?Ray: Maths homework.Alan: Cheat.</p></li><li><p>and at home.</p><p>Alistair: I made the procedure up myself. It was something like, start with one number, well is it a prime number, you first divide the number by half the number and then round that down to whatever the number is without any decimal places. And then times it by 2 again because you halved the number. If it's the same as the number you want to find if it's a prime then do something or other, I've forgotten... First, divide it by 2, round it down to no decimal places and then</p></li><li><p>Designing for learning the InterActive Education Project</p><p> choose a focused area of the curriculum which students normally find difficult to learn </p><p> use widely available and yet under-utilised software</p><p> design a learning environment which is informed by research</p><p> evaluate the learning initiative using digital video</p><p> re-design</p></li><li><p>Teaching and learning with ICT</p><p>The work of the design teams supported teachers to take the risk of experimenting with ICT in the classroom.</p><p>70% of teacher partners used ICT successfully to enhance student learning. </p></li><li><p>Data Handling Data Handling in the in the NumeracyNumeracy HourHour</p><p>Year 4 (Age 8Year 4 (Age 8--9)9)Simon MillsSimon Mills</p><p>TeyfantTeyfant Community SchoolCommunity School</p></li><li><p>Curriculum Context</p><p>Pupils to Solve a problem by collecting quickly,</p><p>organising, representing andinterpreting data in tables,</p><p>charts, graphs and diagrams,including those generated </p><p>by a computer,</p><p>Pupils to extract andinterpret informationpresented in simpletables and lists. </p><p>construct bar charts and pictograms..communicate informationthey have gathered, andinterpret information</p><p>presented to themin these forms</p><p>Pupils use ICT to generate, develop, organise and</p><p>present their workshare and exchange theirideas with others. makeappropriate choices whenusing ICT-based models</p><p>..to help them find Things out and solve</p><p>problems.</p><p>Pupils use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams.. to show that they understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it.</p><p>Pupils to try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving problems</p><p>Pupils discuss their mathematical work and (begin)to explain their thinking</p><p>MA 1</p><p>NNS</p><p>ICT</p><p>MA 4</p></li><li><p>discussed a range of chart types, including frequency tables, bar charts, line graphs, </p><p>and pie charts.</p><p>The InitiativeTook place over 8Numeracy</p><p>Hours</p><p>Initial sessionsTeacher lead</p><p>using the NNSPilot planningstructure as </p><p>a framework.</p><p>Within theseSessions We:</p><p>evaluated existing charts as we might textual artefacts (Mathematical literacy) [Emergent </p><p>graphicacy]</p><p>Carried out and discussed communal surveys,using a range of software, including ITPs, </p><p>and Microsoft ExcelTM</p></li><li><p>Investigation and how it began?</p><p>Does Every Tube Of Smarties Contain the Same Number of Each Colour?</p><p>They sorted, and counted </p><p>their smarties.</p><p>Children worked in </p><p>pairs</p><p>They entered this data into </p><p>Microsoft Excel, to create </p><p>frequency charts. BUT! then the </p><p>unexpected happened!</p></li><li><p>Learner as teacher</p><p>How can I use Excel to represent my data?</p><p>They used drag and drop, and </p><p>wizards to create charts.</p><p>Some children </p><p>began to use previously developed windows TMexperience to explore the tool.</p><p>This became an opportunity to encourage the </p><p>children to become the </p><p>knowledgeable other, or expert and teach the </p><p>class</p></li><li><p>Classroom as a learning community</p><p>Pupil as teacher (more knowledgeable other)</p><p>Constructing knowledge through dialogue and inter-action</p><p>Interactive whiteboard as shared knowledge-building space for whole class</p></li><li><p>Shared working space</p><p>Well I think the role of the interactive whiteboard changed as the project went on. I think initially it was a modelling device. It was a means by which I could demonstrate and model what children were doing. I think what it became later was a window and a way to view what children were actually doing and had learnt. Simon, final interview</p></li><li><p>An ICT tool potentially transforms</p><p>But</p><p>People have to learn to use the tool in a transformative way. </p></li><li><p>Teaching and learning with ICT</p><p> Analysis of video data showed that young people can work with ICT for long periods of time, investigating their own questions and experimenting with ideas.</p><p> There is a creative tension between incidental and intended learning. </p></li><li><p>Creating a knowledge world</p><p>To enter the world of science you have to learn to speak, to theorise, to act with the tools of science. This is the same for music, for English, for mathematics, for geography, for history..</p><p>People are central to the creation of these knowledge worlds which are constantly evolving because of the invention of new (increasingly digital) tools.</p><p>From this perspective teachers and students are key architects in building the knowledge-base for an information society. </p></li><li><p>Integrating ICT into subject teaching and learning</p><p>Is it important to be able to compose with a digital composition package and with a musical instrument?</p><p>Is it important to write with paper and pencil as well as with a wordprocessor? </p><p>Is it important to do geometry on paper as well as with a dynamic geometry package? </p><p>Is it important to carry out science experiments in the lab, as well as within a digital simulation?</p></li><li><p> The teacher remains key to the successful use of ICT for learning.</p><p> Learning is distributed between the technology, the learner and the social and cultural context.</p><p> There is a two-way exchange of knowledge between home and school use of ICT that impacts on learning in school.</p><p> Effective teaching and learning with ICT involves building bridges between incidental and intendedlearning.</p><p> There is nothing inherent in technology that guarantees the intended learning.</p></li><li><p>Professional development needs to enable teachers to take risks with ICT and learning.</p><p>Teachers can work within the constraints of available technology to enhance learning.</p><p>Language remains the keystone of literate practices</p></li><li><p>Professional development is key</p><p>Most of us when we look at ICT we go for whats safe. We go to what we know. Whereas this sometimes is not particularly safe I like that. Have a go and get it wrong. The video was the important thing watching myself teach and being able to see kids when Im not there. I had a very negative attitude to being observed OfSTED and others but this allowed me to sit and watch and be comfortable with it..itsan important process. I can now refine my teachingsit back and reflect properly. I never had the chance and video made it happen.Teacher-partner in InterActive Education project </p><p>Innovative Uses of ICT in Educational ResearchThe Project TeamA socio-cultural perspective on learningA socio-cultural perspective on learningLearningLearning Symbols and material objectsICTStudents actively make senseStudents actively make senseInventing tools in school mathematicsAll learning is influenced by previous learning at schooland at home.and at home.Designing for learning the InterActive Education ProjectTeaching and learning with ICTCurriculum ContextThe InitiativeInvestigation and how it began?Learner as teacherClassroom as a learning communityShared working spaceAn ICT tool potentially transformsTeaching and learning with ICTCreating a knowledge worldIntegrating ICT into subject teaching and learningProfessional development is key</p></li></ul>