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DESCRIPTIONa detailed and elaborative concept of socialism in India.
<ul><li> 1. INDIAN SOCIALISMSUBMITTED BY:Anamika BishnoiB.A.LL.B. 2ndyear</li></ul> <p> 2. WHAT IS SOCIALISM?? Derived from sociology Dissimilarity between sociology and socialism Still one thing in common i.e. society Sociology: branch of science studying society, societalrelations, rules, norms, behavior and other society relatedthings 3. Socialism: principle aiming welfare of the society Implementation of all state policies in favor of publicgood and public interest Concept of welfare state followed 4. Socialist state State that abolished capitalism State moving towards communism Some form of ownership of means of production anddistribution by the state Indian constitution aiming economic socialism 5. Economic socialism involves mixed economy State following egalitarianism 6. Egalitarianism Derived from French word egal meaning equal Soul of a socialist state Trend of thought favoring equality of some sort General premise: people should be treated as equals ondimensions of religion, politics, society and culture 7. Believes all human are equal in fundamental worth or moralstatus Aims at removal of all economic inequalities among people Decentralization of power Basically called natural state of society 8. Preamble Before 1976 it constituted of only sovereign democraticrepublic Converted into sovereign socialist secular democraticrepublic after 42ndamendment 1976 The concept made explicit Indias commitment to this ideal strengthened andunderlined 9. Instancesproving socialism in India 10. Mixed economy Combination of public and private ownership of the means ofproduction with some measure of control by the centre Mix between socialism and communism Attempt to gain the advantages of freedom without govt.having to give up it powers 11. Objects to achieve economic growth with distributed justice Major example: United States Of America 12. Articles supporting mixedeconomy Article 19 (1) gArticle 19: protection of certain rights regarding freedom ofspeech etc.1. all citizens shall have the rightG. to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation,trade or business 13. Article 298Power to carry on trade, etc.- the executive power ofthe union and of each state shall extend to the carrying onof any trade or business and to the acquisition, hilding anddisposal of property and the making of contracts for anypurpose:Provided that-a. the said executive power of the union shall, insofar assuch trade or business or such purpose is not one withrespect to which the parliament may make laws, be subjectin each state to legislation by the state; and. 14. b. the said executive power of each state shall, insofar as suchtrade or business or such purposes is not one with respect towhich the state legislature may make laws, be subject tolegislation by parliament 15. Abolition of privy purse Privy purse???a. Payment made to the royal families of erstwhile princelystatesb. It was a part of their agreements to first integrate withIndia in 1947 and later to merge their states in 1949whereby they lost all ruling rights.c. For the 565 princely states, Privy Purses ranged from Rs.5000/- per annum to amounts in millions 16. d. And 6 of the most important states in India wereprovided with Privy Purses above Rs. 10,00,000/-e. Those 6 states were- hyderabad, mysore, travancore,baroda, jaipur and patiala Its abolition:a. finally, the motion to abolish it & the officialrecognition of the titles was originally brought before theparliament in 1969 17. b. But unfortunately was defeated by one votec. And it was again proposed in 1971 by the prime ministerd. And was successfully passed as the 26thAmendment to theconstitution of Indiae. Indira Gandhi argued the case for abolition based on equalrights for all citizens and the need to reduce thegovernments revenue deficit 18. Article 14 Of The IndianConstitution Equality before law- the state shall not deny to anyperson equality before the law or the equal protection oflaws within the territory of India.This article uses two expressions :a. Equality before the lawb. Equal protection of laws 19. Equality before law:a. Common law conceptb. Absence of privileges in favor of any person orclassc. No man is above lawd. Every person, irrespective of his rank or condition,is subjected to ordinary course of jurisdictione. Taken from British law 20. Equal protection of laws:a. Law will apply equally to equally placed personsb. That means discrimination can take place between personsnot placed in equal circumstancesc. State is in no danger to have the power to distinguishingand classifying persons or things for the purpose oflegislationd. But, the classification made, must be reasonable 21. Bank Nationalization the process of taking an industry or assets into the publicownership of a national government or state usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assetsowned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities,being transferred to the public sector Many socialists believe that public ownership enablespeople to exercise full democratic control over the meanswhereby they earn their living 22. and provides an effective means of distributing output tobenefit the public at large, and a means for providing publicfinance The need of nationalizing the bank in India was felt becausethe private commercial banks were not fulfilling the socialand developmental goals of banking Despite the enactment of the banking regulation act 1949and the nationalization of the state bank of India in 1955,the expansion of commercial banking had largely excludedrural areas and small-scale borrowers 23. Then the nationalization took place in two phases: First round- in 1969 covering 14 banks Second round- in 1980 covering 7 banks Currently there are 27 nationalized commercial banks 24. At the time of nationalization, priority sector conceptintroduced by bringing agriculture, small-scale industry,retail trade, small business and small transport operatorsunder its fold It became mandatory for banks to provide 40% of their netcredit to priority sectors Within this bank had to provide 18 percent of their netcredit to the agricultural sectors, so as to reduce the hold ofmoneylenders & make more funds available for agriculturaldevelopment So, from the early 1970s, banks were also actively involvedin poverty alleviation and employment generationprogrammes 25. Anti-competition law Also known as monopolies and restrictive trade practice act(MRTP Act) India enacted its first legislation act in 1969 It was an integral part of the economic life of the country It aims at preventing concentration of economic power to thecommon detriment, provide for control of monopolies andprobation of monopolistic, restrictive and unfair tradepractice, and protect consumer interest 26. enacted to ensure that operation of economic system does notresult in concentration of economic powers in hand of few 27. Directive principles of statepolicy Guidelines to central and state government, to be kept in mindwhile framing laws and policies These provision not enforceable by any court, but the principlesare considered fundamental duties of state This concept has been borrowed from Irish constitution It aims at creating social and economic conditions under whichthe citizens can lead a good life. 28. The state shall work towards reducing economic inequality Also aims to establish social and economic democracythrough a welfare state State shall aim for securing right to an adequate means oflivelihood for all citizens as well as equal for equal work forboth men and women State shall try to ensure that ownership and control of thematerial resources is distributed to sub serve the commongoodThe two most important articles of directive principlesof state policy favoring socialism are: 29. Article 38: state to secure a social order for thepromotion of welfare of the people1. The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the peopleby securing and protecting as effectively as it may a socialorder in which justice, social, economic and political, shallinform all the institutions of the national life.2. The state shall, in particular strive to minimise theinequalities in income, and endeavor to eliminateinequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not onlyamongst individuals but also amongst groups of peopleresiding in different areas or engaged in differentvocations 30. Article 39: certain principles of state policy to befollowed by the statethe state shall, in particular, directs its policy towards securinga. That the citizens, men and women equally have the rights to anadequate means of livelihood;b. That the ownership and control of the material resources of thecommunity are so distributed as best sub serve the common good;c. That the operation of the economic system does not result in theconcentration of wealth and means of production to thecommon detriment;d. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women; 31. e. That the health and strength of workers, men and women, andthe tender age of children are not abused and that citizens arenot forced by economic necessity to enter avocation unsuited totheir age or strength;f. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop ina healthy manner and in condition of freedom and dignity andthat childhood and youth are protected against exploitation andagainst moral and material abandonment 32. Conclusion It proves our socialism to be democratic Because democratic socialists believe, both the economy and society should rundemocratically i.e. to meet public needs, not to make profit for a few To achieve more just society It support the principles of democratic collective ownership of the basic means ofproduction and the principle of democratic management Therefore these socialist support not only public ownership but cooperativeownership of economic functions 33. And all these features are very identical to those we had discussedsome minutes before Ironical: we cannot find the word socialism anywhere other thenpreamble But still we have socialism in almost every part of ourconstitution This shows the successful existence of socialism in India. And we hope it forever remains one of the most important part ofthe constitution 34. THANKYOU</p>
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